### All the ideas for Michael Burke, Yale Kamisar and Alex Orenstein

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24 ideas

###### 4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 1. Propositional Logic
 8472 Sentential logic is consistent (no contradictions) and complete (entirely provable) [Orenstein]
###### 4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 2. Tools of Propositional Logic / e. Axioms of PL
 8476 Axiomatization simply picks from among the true sentences a few to play a special role [Orenstein]
###### 4. Formal Logic / D. Modal Logic ML / 4. Alethic Modal Logic
 8480 S4: 'poss that poss that p' implies 'poss that p'; S5: 'poss that nec that p' implies 'nec that p' [Orenstein]
###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 1. Set Theory
 8474 Unlike elementary logic, set theory is not complete [Orenstein]
###### 4. Formal Logic / G. Formal Mereology / 1. Mereology
 8465 Mereology has been exploited by some nominalists to achieve the effects of set theory [Orenstein]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 1. Quantification
 8452 Traditionally, universal sentences had existential import, but were later treated as conditional claims [Orenstein]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 4. Substitutional Quantification
 8475 The substitution view of quantification says a sentence is true when there is a substitution instance [Orenstein]
###### 6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Nature of Numbers / b. Types of number
 8454 The whole numbers are 'natural'; 'rational' numbers include fractions; the 'reals' include root-2 etc. [Orenstein]
###### 6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 6. Logicism / a. Early logicism
 8473 The logicists held that is-a-member-of is a logical constant, making set theory part of logic [Orenstein]
###### 7. Existence / E. Categories / 3. Proposed Categories
 8458 Just individuals in Nominalism; add sets for Extensionalism; add properties, concepts etc for Intensionalism [Orenstein]
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
 16235 Persistence conditions cannot contradict, so there must be a 'dominant sortal' [Burke,M, by Hawley]
 14753 The 'dominant' of two coinciding sortals is the one that entails the widest range of properties [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / b. Unifying aggregates
 16072 'The rock' either refers to an object, or to a collection of parts, or to some stuff [Burke,M, by Wasserman]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / b. Cat and its tail
 14751 Tib goes out of existence when the tail is lost, because Tib was never the 'cat' [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / c. Statue and clay
 16071 Sculpting a lump of clay destroys one object, and replaces it with another one [Burke,M, by Wasserman]
 16234 Burke says when two object coincide, one of them is destroyed in the process [Burke,M, by Hawley]
 13278 Maybe the clay becomes a different lump when it becomes a statue [Burke,M, by Koslicki]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / d. Coincident objects
 14750 Two entities can coincide as one, but only one of them (the dominant sortal) fixes persistence conditions [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
 8457 The Principle of Conservatism says we should violate the minimum number of background beliefs [Orenstein]
###### 19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 10. Denial of Meanings
 8477 People presume meanings exist because they confuse meaning and reference [Orenstein]
###### 19. Language / C. Assigning Meanings / 3. Predicates
 8471 Three ways for 'Socrates is human' to be true are nominalist, platonist, or Montague's way [Orenstein]
###### 19. Language / D. Propositions / 4. Mental Propositions
 8484 If two people believe the same proposition, this implies the existence of propositions [Orenstein]
###### 24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 5. Euthanasia
 4050 We only allow voluntary euthanasia to someone who is both sane and crazed by pain [Kamisar]
 4051 People will volunteer for euthanasia because they think other people want them dead [Kamisar]