### All the ideas for Michael Burke, Rayo,A/Uzquiasno,G and Jean-Jacques Rousseau

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145 ideas

###### 2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason
 19767 Reason leads to prudent selfishness, but overruling natural compassion [Rousseau]
###### 2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
 19807 Both nature and reason require that everything has a cause [Rousseau]
###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 1. Set Theory
 13451 The two best understood conceptions of set are the Iterative and the Limitation of Size [Rayo/Uzquiano]
###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 4. Axioms for Sets / m. Axiom of Separation
 13452 Some set theories give up Separation in exchange for a universal set [Rayo/Uzquiano]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 2. Domain of Quantification
 13449 We could have unrestricted quantification without having an all-inclusive domain [Rayo/Uzquiano]
 13450 Absolute generality is impossible, if there are indefinitely extensible concepts like sets and ordinals [Rayo/Uzquiano]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 5. Second-Order Quantification
 13453 Perhaps second-order quantifications cover concepts of objects, rather than plain objects [Rayo/Uzquiano]
###### 9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
 16235 Persistence conditions cannot contradict, so there must be a 'dominant sortal' [Burke,M, by Hawley]
 14753 The 'dominant' of two coinciding sortals is the one that entails the widest range of properties [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / b. Unifying aggregates
 16072 'The rock' either refers to an object, or to a collection of parts, or to some stuff [Burke,M, by Wasserman]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / b. Cat and its tail
 14751 Tib goes out of existence when the tail is lost, because Tib was never the 'cat' [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / c. Statue and clay
 16071 Sculpting a lump of clay destroys one object, and replaces it with another one [Burke,M, by Wasserman]
 16234 Burke says when two object coincide, one of them is destroyed in the process [Burke,M, by Hawley]
 13278 Maybe the clay becomes a different lump when it becomes a statue [Burke,M, by Koslicki]
###### 9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 3. Unity Problems / d. Coincident objects
 14750 Two entities can coincide as one, but only one of them (the dominant sortal) fixes persistence conditions [Burke,M, by Sider]
###### 11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 1. Knowledge
 19757 No one would bother to reason, and try to know things, without a desire for enjoyment [Rousseau]
###### 15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 5. Generalisation by mind
 19760 General ideas are purely intellectual; imagining them is immediately particular [Rousseau]
 19759 Only words can introduce general ideas into the mind [Rousseau]
###### 18. Thought / D. Concepts / 5. Concepts and Language / a. Concepts and language
 19758 Language may aid thinking, but powerful thought was needed to produce language [Rousseau]
###### 19. Language / F. Communication / 5. Pragmatics / a. Contextual meaning
 13448 The domain of an assertion is restricted by context, either semantically or pragmatically [Rayo/Uzquiano]
###### 21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
 19773 Without love, what use is beauty? [Rousseau]
###### 22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / h. Good as benefit
 19752 If we should not mistreat humans, it is mainly because of sentience, not rationality [Rousseau]
###### 22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / g. Moral responsibility
 7235 Without freedom of will actions lack moral significance [Rousseau]
###### 22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / b. Rational ethics
 19769 Rational morality is OK for brainy people, but ordinary life can't rely on that [Rousseau]
###### 23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
 19768 The better Golden Rule is 'do good for yourself without harming others' [Rousseau]
###### 23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
 19766 The fact that we weep (e.g. in theatres) shows that we are naturally compassionate [Rousseau]
###### 23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
 20759 Feelings are prior to intelligence; we should be content to live with our simplest feelings [Rousseau]
###### 24. Applied Ethics / B. Moral Rights / 3. Animal Rights
 19753 Both men and animals are sentient, which should give the latter the right not to be mistreated [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
 19756 Humans are less distinguished from other animals by understanding, than by being free agents [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / b. The natural life
 19778 Leisure led to envy, inequality, vice and revenge, which we now see in savages [Rousseau]
 19751 Our two starting principles are concern for self-interest, and compassion for others [Rousseau]
 19755 Most human ills are self-inflicted; the simple, solitary, regular natural life is good [Rousseau]
 19762 Is language a pre-requisite for society, or might it emerge afterwards? [Rousseau]
 19763 I doubt whether a savage person ever complains of life, or considers suicide [Rousseau]
 19765 Savages avoid evil because they are calm, and never think of it (not because they know goodness) [Rousseau]
 19771 Savage men quietly pursue desires, without the havoc of modern frenzied imagination [Rousseau]
 19779 Primitive man was very gentle [Rousseau]
 19791 Natural mankind is too fragmented for states of peace, or of war and enmity [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
 20501 Rousseau assumes that laws need a people united by custom and tradition [Rousseau, by Wolff,J]
 7237 The act of becoming 'a people' is the real foundation of society [Rousseau]
 19792 To overcome obstacles, people must unite their forces into a single unified power [Rousseau]
 19812 Human nature changes among a people, into a moral and partial existence [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / a. Natural freedom
 19774 A savage can steal fruit or a home, but there is no means of achieving obedience [Rousseau]
 7232 Man is born free, and he is everywhere in chains [Rousseau]
 7234 No man has any natural authority over his fellows [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / b. Natural equality
 19772 In a state of nature people are much more equal; it is society which increases inequalities [Rousseau]
 19789 It is against nature for children to rule old men, fools to rule the wise, and the rich to hog resources [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
 7247 The greatest social good comes down to freedom and equality [Rousseau]
 19816 A state's purpose is liberty and equality - liberty for strength, and equality for liberty [Rousseau]
 19838 The measure of a successful state is increase in its population [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / a. Sovereignty
 19787 People accept the right to be commanded, because they themselves wish to command [Rousseau]
 20567 Rousseau insists that popular sovereignty needs a means of expressing consent [Rousseau, by Oksala]
 19848 The sovereignty does not appoint the leaders [Rousseau]
 19801 Sovereignty is the exercise of the general will, which can never be delegated [Rousseau]
 19805 Just as people control their limbs, the general-will state has total control of its members [Rousseau]
 19818 Political laws are fundamental, as they firmly organise the state - but they could still be changed [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / c. Natural authority
 19790 Force can only dominate if it is seen as a right, and obedience as a duty [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / d. Social contract
 7233 The social order is a sacred right, but based on covenants, not nature [Rousseau]
 19842 The government is instituted by a law, not by a contract [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / e. General will
 7239 The social pact is the total subjection of individuals to the general will [Rousseau]
 19793 We need a protective association which unites forces, but retains individual freedom [Rousseau]
 7240 To foreign powers a state is seen as a simple individual [Rousseau]
 19795 The act of association commits citizens to the state, and the state to its citizens [Rousseau]
 19796 Individual citizens still retain a private will, which may be contrary to the general will [Rousseau]
 19797 Citizens must ultimately for forced to accept the general will (so freedom is compulsory!) [Rousseau]
 7244 The general will is common interest; the will of all is the sum of individual desires [Rousseau]
 19802 The general will is always right, but the will of all can err, because it includes private interests [Rousseau]
 19804 If a large knowledgeable population votes in isolation, their many choices will have good results [Rousseau]
 19803 If the state contains associations there are fewer opinions, undermining the general will [Rousseau]
 19808 The general will changes its nature when it focuses on particulars [Rousseau]
 7246 The general will is always good, but sometimes misunderstood [Rousseau]
 7250 Laws are authentic acts of the general will [Rousseau]
 19844 Assemblies must always confirm the form of government, and the current administration [Rousseau]
 19846 The more unanimous the assembly, the stronger the general will becomes [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 4. Citizenship
 19854 We all owe labour in return for our keep, and every idle citizen is a thief [Rousseau]
 19817 Citizens should be independent of each other, and very dependent on the state [Rousseau]
 19840 A citizen is a subject who is also sovereign [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / b. Monarchy
 19833 Hereditary monarchy is easier, but can lead to dreadful monarchs [Rousseau]
 19834 Attempts to train future kings don't usually work, and the best have been unprepared [Rousseau]
 19798 Ancient monarchs were kings of peoples; modern monarchs more cleverly rule a land [Rousseau]
 19831 The highest officers under a monarchy are normally useless; the public could choose much better [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / d. Elites
 19829 Natural aristocracy is primitive, and hereditary is dreadful, but elective aristocracy is best [Rousseau]
 7249 Natural aristocracy is primitive, hereditary is bad, and elective aristocracy is the best [Rousseau]
 19830 Large states need a nobility to fill the gap between a single prince and the people [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
 19827 Law makers and law implementers should be separate [Rousseau]
 19820 The state has a legislature and an executive, just like the will and physical power in a person [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / c. Executive
 19821 I call the executive power the 'government', which is the 'prince' - a single person, or a group [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / d. Size of government
 19824 Large populations needs stronger control, which means power should be concentrated [Rousseau]
 19826 Democracy for small states, aristocracy for intermediate, monarchy for large [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / c. Revolution
 19747 Revolutionaries usually confuse liberty with total freedom, and end up with heavier chains [Rousseau]
 19837 If inhabitants are widely dispersed, organising a revolt is much more difficult [Rousseau]
 19843 The state is not bound to leave civil authority to its leaders [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 8. Culture
 19780 We seem to have made individual progress since savagery, but actually the species has decayed [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
 19850 By separating theological and political systems, Jesus caused divisions in the state [Rousseau]
 19852 Civil religion needs one supreme god, an afterlife, justice, and the sanctity of the social contract [Rousseau]
 19853 All religions should be tolerated, if they tolerate each other, and support citizenship [Rousseau]
 19851 Every society has a religion as its base [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 8. Culture
 19839 The flourishing of arts and letters is too much admired [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / B. The State / 9. Population / a. State population
 19814 A state must be big enough to preserve itself, but small enough to be governable [Rousseau]
 19815 Too much land is a struggle, producing defensive war; too little makes dependence, and offensive war [Rousseau]
 19822 If the state enlarges, the creators of the general will become less individually powerful [Rousseau]
 19823 If the population is larger, the government needs to be more powerful [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / a. Slavery
 19775 People must be made dependent before they can be enslaved [Rousseau]
 19784 Enslaved peoples often boast of their condition, calling it a state of 'peace' [Rousseau]
 19785 If the child of a slave woman is born a slave, then a man is not born a man [Rousseau]
 19841 Sometimes full liberty is only possible at the expense of some complete enslavement [Rousseau]
 19847 We can never assume that the son of a slave is a slave [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
 19746 Like rich food, liberty can ruin people who are too weak to cope with it [Rousseau]
 7242 Appetite alone is slavery, and self-prescribed laws are freedom [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
 19786 Three stages of the state produce inequalities of wealth, power, and enslavement [Rousseau]
 19800 The social compact imposes conventional equality of rights on people who may start unequally [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 3. Social Equality / d. Economic equality
 7248 No citizen should be rich enough to buy another, and none so poor as forced to sell himself [Rousseau]
 19788 The pleasure of wealth and power is largely seeing others deprived of them [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 4. Legal Rights / b. Alienating rights
 19794 If we all give up all of our rights together to the community, we will always support one another [Rousseau]
 7241 In society man loses natural liberty, but gains a right to civil liberty and property [Rousseau]
 19806 We alienate to society only what society needs - but society judges that, not us [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 4. Legal Rights / c. Property rights
 19777 Persuading other people that some land was 'owned' was the beginning of society [Rousseau]
 19782 What else could property arise from, but the labour people add to it? [Rousseau]
 19781 Land cultivation led to a general right of ownership, administered justly [Rousseau]
 19754 If we have a natural right to property, what exactly does 'belonging to' mean? [Rousseau]
 19799 Private property must always be subordinate to ownership by the whole community [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
 19810 A trial proves that a criminal has broken the social treaty, and is no longer a member of the state [Rousseau]
 19809 We accept the death penalty to prevent assassinations, so we must submit to it if necessary [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / b. Retribution for crime
 19770 Primitive people simply redressed the evil caused by violence, without thought of punishing [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / c. Deterrence of crime
 19811 Only people who are actually dangerous should be executed, even as an example [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
 7238 Minorities only accept majority-voting because of a prior unanimous agreement [Rousseau]
 19825 If the sovereign entrusts government to at least half the citizens, that is 'democracy' [Rousseau]
 19828 Democracy leads to internal strife, as people struggle to maintain or change ways of ruling [Rousseau]
 19835 When ministers change the state changes, because they always reverse policies [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
 19748 Plebiscites are bad, because they exclude the leaders from crucial decisions [Rousseau]
 7243 Silence of the people implies their consent [Rousseau]
 19832 Democratic elections are dangerous intervals in government [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / c. Direct democracy
 19749 In a direct democracy, only the leaders should be able to propose new laws [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / d. Representative democracy
 7251 The English are actually slaves in between elections [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 9. Communism
 19745 The nature of people is decided by the government and politics of their society [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 10. Theocracy
 19849 In early theocracies the god was the king, and there were as many gods as nations [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / a. Legal system
 19819 The state ensures liberty, so civil law separates citizens, and binds them to the state [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 1. The Law / b. Natural law
 19750 Writers just propose natural law as the likely useful agreements among people [Rousseau]
 7245 Natural justice, without sanctions, benefits the wicked, who exploit it [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 2. Taxation
 19836 The amount of taxation doesn't matter, if it quickly circulates back to the citizens [Rousseau]
###### 25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. War
 19783 A state of war remains after a conquest, if the losers don't accept the winners [Rousseau]
 7236 War gives no right to inflict more destruction than is necessary for victory [Rousseau]
###### 26. Natural Theory / B. Natural Kinds / 2. Defining Kinds
 19761 Men started with too few particular names, but later had too few natural kind names [Rousseau]
###### 27. Natural Reality / F. Biology / 3. Evolution
 19776 Small uninterrupted causes can have big effects [Rousseau]
###### 29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
 7252 A tyrant exploits Christians because they don't value this life, and are made to be slaves [Rousseau]