### All the ideas for Kenelm Digby, Samir Okasha and J Baggini / PS Fosl

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31 ideas

###### 2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 2. Sufficient Reason
 4643 The Principle of Sufficient Reason does not presuppose that all explanations will be causal explanations [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 2. Reason / B. Laws of Thought / 3. Non-Contradiction
 4633 You cannot rationally deny the principle of non-contradiction, because all reasoning requires it [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 2. Reason / C. Styles of Reason / 1. Dialectic
 4635 Dialectic aims at unified truth, unlike analysis, which divides into parts [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 4. Formal Logic / B. Propositional Logic PL / 2. Tools of Propositional Logic / e. Axioms of PL
 4632 'Natural' systems of deduction are based on normal rational practice, rather than on axioms [Baggini /Fosl]
 4631 In ideal circumstances, an axiom should be such that no rational agent could possibly object to its use [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / D. Assumptions for Logic / 1. Bivalence
 4638 The principle of bivalence distorts reality, as when claiming that a person is or is not 'thin' [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 2. Reduction
 22180 Multiple realisability is said to make reduction impossible [Okasha]
###### 9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 4. Quantity of an Object
 16597 Quantity is the capacity to be divided [Digby]
###### 9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 3. Relative Identity
 4640 If identity is based on 'true of X' instead of 'property of X' we get the Masked Man fallacy ('I know X but not Y') [Baggini /Fosl, by PG]
###### 9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 4. Type Identity
 4647 'I have the same car as you' is fine; 'I have the same fiancée as you' is not so good [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
 4639 Leibniz's Law is about the properties of objects; the Identity of Indiscernibles is about perception of objects [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
 4646 Is 'events have causes' analytic a priori, synthetic a posteriori, or synthetic a priori? [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
 4645 'A priori' does not concern how you learn a proposition, but how you show whether it is true or false [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 4. Foundationalism / b. Basic beliefs
 4582 Basic beliefs are self-evident, or sensual, or intuitive, or revealed, or guaranteed [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 3. Experiment
 22172 Not all sciences are experimental; astronomy relies on careful observation [Okasha]
 22177 Randomised Control Trials have a treatment and a control group, chosen at random [Okasha]
###### 14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 6. Falsification
 4644 A proposition such as 'some swans are purple' cannot be falsified, only verified [Baggini /Fosl]
 22174 The discoverers of Neptune didn't change their theory because of an anomaly [Okasha]
 22175 Science mostly aims at confirming theories, rather than falsifying them [Okasha]
###### 14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
 22182 Theories with unobservables are underdetermined by the evidence [Okasha]
###### 14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 5. Commensurability
 22185 Two things can't be incompatible if they are incommensurable [Okasha]
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
 22176 Induction is inferences from examined to unexamined instances of a given kind [Okasha]
 4584 The problem of induction is how to justify our belief in the uniformity of nature [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 4. Reason in Induction
 4583 How can an argument be good induction, but poor deduction? [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 14. Science / C. Induction / 6. Bayes's Theorem
 22178 If the rules only concern changes of belief, and not the starting point, absurd views can look ratiional [Okasha]
###### 14. Science / D. Explanation / 3. Best Explanation / a. Best explanation
 4634 Abduction aims at simplicity, testability, coherence and comprehensiveness [Baggini /Fosl]
 4637 To see if an explanation is the best, it is necessary to investigate the alternative explanations [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 18. Thought / A. Modes of Thought / 5. Rationality / a. Rationality
 4629 Consistency is the cornerstone of rationality [Baggini /Fosl]
###### 26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 7. Later Matter Theories / b. Corpuscles
 16731 Colours arise from the rarity, density and mixture of matter [Digby]
###### 27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / b. Laws of motion
 22173 Galileo refuted the Aristotelian theory that heavier objects fall faster [Okasha]
###### 27. Natural Reality / G. Biology / 5. Species
 17366 Virtually all modern views of speciation rest on relational rather than intrinsic features [Okasha]