Combining Philosophers

All the ideas for Friedrich Schlegel, John Stuart Mill and Karl Leonhard Reinhold

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115 ideas

1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 4. Later European Philosophy / c. Eighteenth century philosophy
Irony is consciousness of abundant chaos [Schlegel,F]
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 3. Metaphysical Systems
Plato has no system. Philosophy is the progression of a mind and development of thoughts [Schlegel,F]
4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 7. Natural Sets
What physical facts could underlie 0 or 1, or very large numbers? [Frege on Mill]
5. Theory of Logic / E. Structures of Logic / 2. Logical Connectives / d. and
Combining two distinct assertions does not necessarily lead to a single 'complex proposition' [Mill]
5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / a. Names
All names are names of something, real or imaginary [Mill]
5. Theory of Logic / F. Referring in Logic / 1. Naming / c. Names as referential
Mill says names have denotation but not connotation [Mill, by Kripke]
Proper names are just labels for persons or objects, and the meaning is the object [Mill, by Lycan]
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 4. Using Numbers / a. Units
Numbers must be assumed to have identical units, as horses are equalised in 'horse-power' [Mill]
6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 4. Axioms for Number / a. Axioms for numbers
The only axioms needed are for equality, addition, and successive numbers [Mill, by Shapiro]
6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 5. Definitions of Number / b. Greek arithmetic
Arithmetic is based on definitions, and Sums of equals are equal, and Differences of equals are equal [Mill]
6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 4. Mathematical Empiricism / a. Mathematical empiricism
Mill says logic and maths is induction based on a very large number of instances [Mill, by Ayer]
If two black and two white objects in practice produced five, what colour is the fifth one? [Lewis,CI on Mill]
Mill mistakes particular applications as integral to arithmetic, instead of general patterns [Dummett on Mill]
Things possess the properties of numbers, as quantity, and as countable parts [Mill]
Numbers have generalised application to entities (such as bodies or sounds) [Mill]
There are no such things as numbers in the abstract [Mill]
3=2+1 presupposes collections of objects ('Threes'), which may be divided thus [Mill]
We can't easily distinguish 102 horses from 103, but we could arrange them to make it obvious [Mill]
Numbers denote physical properties of physical phenomena [Mill]
Arithmetical results give a mode of formation of a given number [Mill]
12 is the cube of 1728 means pebbles can be aggregated a certain way [Mill]
Numbers must be of something; they don't exist as abstractions [Mill]
'2 pebbles and 1 pebble' and '3 pebbles' name the same aggregation, but different facts [Mill]
Different parcels made from three pebbles produce different actual sensations [Mill]
6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 4. Mathematical Empiricism / c. Against mathematical empiricism
Mill is too imprecise, and is restricted to simple arithmetic [Kitcher on Mill]
Empirical theories of arithmetic ignore zero, limit our maths, and need probability to get started [Frege on Mill]
6. Mathematics / C. Sources of Mathematics / 5. Numbers as Adjectival
Numbers are a very general property of objects [Mill, by Brown,JR]
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 8. Parts of Objects / a. Parts of objects
Whatever is made up of parts is made up of parts of those parts [Mill]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / a. Essence as necessary properties
The essence is that without which a thing can neither be, nor be conceived to be [Mill]
10. Modality / A. Necessity / 2. Nature of Necessity
Necessity is what will be, despite any alternative suppositions whatever [Mill]
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 2. Phenomenalism
External objects are permanent possibilities of sensation [Mill]
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 3. Idealism / b. Transcendental idealism
Poetry is transcendental when it connects the ideal to the real [Schlegel,F]
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 4. Sense Data / b. Nature of sense-data
Subjects distinguish representations, as related both to subject and object [Reinhold]
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 6. Inference in Perception
Most perception is one-tenth observation and nine-tenths inference [Mill]
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 4. Pro-Empiricism
Clear concepts result from good observation, extensive experience, and accurate memory [Mill]
14. Science / A. Basis of Science / 5. Anomalies
Inductive generalisation is more reliable than one of its instances; they can't all be wrong [Mill]
14. Science / C. Induction / 1. Induction
Mill's methods (Difference,Agreement,Residues,Concomitance,Hypothesis) don't nail induction [Mill, by Lipton]
The whole theory of induction rests on causes [Mill]
14. Science / D. Explanation / 1. Explanation / a. Explanation
Surprisingly, empiricists before Mill ignore explanation, which seems to transcend experience [Mill, by Ruben]
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / e. Lawlike explanations
Explanation is fitting of facts into ever more general patterns of regularity [Mill, by Ruben]
14. Science / D. Explanation / 2. Types of Explanation / g. Causal explanations
Causal inference is by spotting either Agreements or Differences [Mill, by Lipton]
14. Science / D. Explanation / 3. Best Explanation / a. Best explanation
The Methods of Difference and of Agreement are forms of inference to the best explanation [Mill, by Lipton]
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / d. Other minds by analogy
I judge others' feeling by analogy with my body and behaviour [Mill]
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 3. Abstraction by mind
We can focus our minds on what is common to a whole class, neglecting other aspects [Mill]
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 7. Seeing Resemblance
We don't recognise comparisons by something in our minds; the concepts result from the comparisons [Mill]
18. Thought / E. Abstraction / 1. Abstract Thought
General conceptions are a necessary preliminary to Induction [Mill]
The study of the nature of Abstract Ideas does not belong to logic, but to a different science [Mill]
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / a. Will to Act
The will, in the beginning, is entirely produced by desire [Mill]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / b. Literature
For poets free choice is supreme [Schlegel,F]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / e. Love
True love is ironic, in the contrast between finite limitations and the infinity of love [Schlegel,F]
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / g. Consequentialism
Motive shows the worth of the agent, but not of the action [Mill]
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 2. Happiness / d. Routes to happiness
Mill wondered if he would be happy if all his aims were realised, and answered no [Mill, by Critchley]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / g. Moral responsibility
It is a crime for someone with a violent disposition to get drunk [Mill]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
With early training, any absurdity or evil may be given the power of conscience [Mill]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
Virtues only have value because they achieve some further end [Mill]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Orthodox morality is the only one which feels obligatory [Mill]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism only works if everybody has a totally equal right to happiness [Mill]
Mill's qualities of pleasure is an admission that there are other good states of mind than pleasure [Ross on Mill]
Actions are right if they promote pleasure, wrong if they promote pain [Mill]
Ethics rests on utility, which is the permanent progressive interests of people [Mill]
The English believe in the task of annihilating evil for the victory of good [Nietzsche on Mill]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 2. Ideal of Pleasure
Ultimate goods such as pleasure can never be proved to be good [Mill]
Only pleasure and freedom from pain are desirable as ends [Mill]
Better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied [Mill]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 3. Motivation for Altruism
General happiness is only desirable because individuals desire their own happiness [Mill]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 5. Rule Utilitarianism
Moral rules protecting human welfare are more vital than local maxims [Mill]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 3. Angst
Irony is the response to conflicts of involvement and attachment [Schlegel,F, by Pinkard]
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 4. Autonomy
We may restrict a person's freedom for the sake of others, but not for the person's own good [Mill, by Glover]
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 3. Abortion
It is a crime to create a being who lacks the ordinary chances of a desirable existence [Mill]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / a. Natural freedom
Individuals have sovereignty over their own bodies and minds [Mill]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 2. Natural Values / c. Natural rights
No individual has the right to receive our benevolence [Mill]
Rights are a matter of justice, not of benevolence [Mill]
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / e. General will
The will of the people is that of the largest or most active part of the people [Mill]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / c. Despotism
It is evil to give a government any more power than is necessary [Mill]
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
Individuals often do things better than governments [Mill]
25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / b. Devolution
Aim for the maximum dissemination of power consistent with efficiency [Mill]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / c. Free speech
Liberty arises at the point where people can freely and equally discuss things [Mill]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / e. Freedom of lifestyle
Pimping and running a gambling-house are on the border between toleration and restraint [Mill]
Mill defends freedom as increasing happiness, but maybe it is an intrinsic good [Wolff,J on Mill]
Utilitarianism values liberty, but guides us on which ones we should have or not have [Mill, by Wolff,J]
True freedom is pursuing our own good, while not impeding others [Mill]
Restraint for its own sake is an evil [Mill]
Individuals are not accountable for actions which only concern themselves [Mill]
Blocking entry to an unsafe bridge does not infringe liberty, since no one wants unsafe bridges [Mill]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 4. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
A right is a valid claim to society's protection [Mill]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / a. Right to punish
Society can punish actions which it believes to be prejudicial to others [Mill]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 2. Social Utilitarianism
Maximise happiness by an area of strict privacy, and an area of utilitarian interventions [Mill, by Wolff,J]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
People who transact their own business will also have the initiative to control their government [Mill]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / b. Consultation
How people vote should be on public record, so they can be held accountable [Mill, by Wolff,J]
Voting is a strict duty, like jury service, and must only be aimed at the public good [Mill]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / c. Direct democracy
Direct democracy is inexperience judging experience, and ignorance judging knowledge [Mill]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / d. Representative democracy
People can only participate in decisions in small communities, so representatives are needed [Mill]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism
Prevention of harm to others is the only justification for exercising power over people [Mill]
The main argument for freedom is that interference with it is usually misguided [Mill]
The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it [Mill]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 3. Welfare provision
Benefits performed by individuals, not by government, help also to educate them [Mill]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 4. Education / b. Aims of education
We need individual opinions and conduct, and State education is a means to prevent that [Mill]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 8. Particular Causation / c. Conditions of causation
A cause is the total of all the conditions which inevitably produce the result [Mill]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 8. Particular Causation / d. Selecting the cause
Causes and conditions are not distinct, because we select capriciously from among them [Mill]
The strict cause is the total positive and negative conditions which ensure the consequent [Mill]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 9. General Causation / a. Constant conjunction
Causation is just invariability of succession between every natural fact and a preceding fact [Mill]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 9. General Causation / d. Causal necessity
A cause is an antecedent which invariably and unconditionally leads to a phenomenon [Mill]
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 4. Regularities / a. Regularity theory
Mill's regularity theory of causation is based on an effect preceded by a conjunction of causes [Mill, by Psillos]
In Mill's 'Method of Agreement' cause is the common factor in a range of different cases [Mill, by Psillos]
In Mill's 'Method of Difference' the cause is what stops the effect when it is removed [Mill, by Psillos]
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 4. Regularities / b. Best system theory
What are the fewest propositions from which all natural uniformities could be inferred? [Mill]
28. God / B. Proving God / 3. Proofs of Evidence / c. Teleological Proof critique
We don't get a love of 'order' from nature - which is thoroughly chaotic [Mill]
29. Religion / B. Monotheistic Religion / 4. Christianity / a. Christianity
The ethics of the Gospel has been supplemented by barbarous Old Testament values [Mill]
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / a. Problem of Evil
Evil comes from good just as often as good comes from evil [Mill]
Belief that an afterlife is required for justice is an admission that this life is very unjust [Mill]
No necessity ties an omnipotent Creator, so he evidently wills human misery [Mill]
29. Religion / D. Religious Issues / 3. Problem of Evil / d. Natural Evil
Nature dispenses cruelty with no concern for either mercy or justice [Mill]
Killing is a human crime, but nature kills everyone, and often with great tortures [Mill]
Hurricanes, locusts, floods and blight can starve a million people to death [Mill]
Nature makes childbirth a miserable experience, often leading to the death of the mother [Mill]