### All the ideas for Carneades, Aeschylus and Oliver,A/Smiley,T

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21 ideas

###### 1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 3. Philosophy Defined
 2666 Carneades' pinnacles of philosophy are the basis of knowledge (the criterion of truth) and the end of appetite (good) [Carneades, by Cicero]
###### 3. Truth / B. Truthmakers / 10. Making Future Truths
 21390 Future events are true if one day we will say 'this event is happening now' [Carneades]
 21672 We say future things are true that will possess actuality at some following time [Carneades, by Cicero]
###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 3. Types of Set / b. Empty (Null) Set
 14239 The empty set is usually derived from Separation, but it also seems to need Infinity [Oliver/Smiley]
 14240 The empty set is something, not nothing! [Oliver/Smiley]
 14241 We don't need the empty set to express non-existence, as there are other ways to do that [Oliver/Smiley]
 14242 Maybe we can treat the empty set symbol as just meaning an empty term [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 4. Formal Logic / F. Set Theory ST / 3. Types of Set / c. Unit (Singleton) Sets
 14243 The unit set may be needed to express intersections that leave a single member [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / G. Quantification / 6. Plural Quantification
 14234 If you only refer to objects one at a time, you need sets in order to refer to a plurality [Oliver/Smiley]
 14237 We can use plural language to refer to the set theory domain, to avoid calling it a 'set' [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 5. Theory of Logic / I. Semantics of Logic / 3. Logical Truth
 14245 Logical truths are true no matter what exists - but predicate calculus insists that something exists [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 4. Using Numbers / g. Applying mathematics
 14246 If mathematics purely concerned mathematical objects, there would be no applied mathematics [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 6. Mathematics as Set Theory / a. Mathematics is set theory
 14247 Sets might either represent the numbers, or be the numbers, or replace the numbers [Oliver/Smiley]
###### 10. Modality / A. Necessity / 3. Types of Necessity
 21389 Carneades distinguished logical from causal necessity, when talking of future events [Long on Carneades]
###### 16. Persons / F. Free Will / 2. Sources of Free Will
 21671 Voluntary motion is intrinsically within our power, and this power is its cause [Carneades, by Cicero]
###### 16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / a. Determinism
 21391 Some actions are within our power; determinism needs prior causes for everything - so it is false [Carneades, by Cicero]
###### 16. Persons / F. Free Will / 6. Determinism / b. Fate
 21674 Even Apollo can only foretell the future when it is naturally necessary [Carneades, by Cicero]
###### 22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / h. Self interest
 7398 Carneades said that after a shipwreck a wise man would seize the only plank by force [Carneades, by Tuck]
###### 25. Social Practice / D. Justice / 1. Basis of justice
 21392 People change laws for advantage; either there is no justice, or it is a form of self-injury [Carneades, by Lactantius]
###### 25. Social Practice / D. Justice / 2. The Law / b. Rule of law
 7810 The 'Eumenides' of Aeschylus shows blood feuds replaced by law [Aeschylus, by Grayling]