Combining Philosophers

All the ideas for Hans Reichenbach, Anselm and Baruch Brody

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27 ideas

2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 5. Objectivity
Contextual values are acceptable in research, but not in its final evaluation [Reichenbach, by Reiss/Sprenger]
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 1. Truth
Anselm of Canterbury identified truth with God [Anselm, by Engel]
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / a. Individuation
Indiscernibility is a necessary and sufficient condition for identity [Brody]
9. Objects / A. Existence of Objects / 5. Individuation / e. Individuation by kind
Brody bases sortal essentialism on properties required throughout something's existence [Brody, by Mackie,P]
9. Objects / C. Structure of Objects / 2. Hylomorphism / a. Hylomorphism
Modern emphasis is on properties had essentially; traditional emphasis is on sort-defining properties [Brody]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 5. Essence as Kind
A sortal essence is a property which once possessed always possessed [Brody, by Mackie,P]
Maybe essential properties are those which determine a natural kind? [Brody]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 6. Essence as Unifier
De re essentialism standardly says all possible objects identical with a have a's essential properties [Brody]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 7. Essence and Necessity / a. Essence as necessary properties
Essentially, a has P, always had P, must have had P, and has never had a future without P [Brody]
An object having a property essentially is equivalent to its having it necessarily [Brody]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 8. Essence as Explanatory
Essentialism is justified if the essential properties of things explain their other properties [Brody]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 12. Essential Parts
Mereological essentialism says that every part that ensures the existence is essential [Brody]
9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 12. Origin as Essential
Interrupted objects have two first moments of existence, which could be two beginnings [Brody]
9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 7. Indiscernible Objects
a and b share all properties; so they share being-identical-with-a; so a = b [Brody]
10. Modality / E. Possible worlds / 3. Transworld Objects / b. Rigid designation
Identity across possible worlds is prior to rigid designation [Brody]
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 5. Interpretation
Kant showed that our perceptions are partly constructed from our concepts [Reichenbach]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 5. Direction of causation
A theory of causal relations yields an asymmetry which defines the direction of time [Reichenbach, by Salmon]
27. Natural Reality / D. Time / 2. Passage of Time / g. Time's arrow
The direction of time is grounded in the direction of causation [Reichenbach, by Ladyman/Ross]
28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / a. Ontological Proof
If that than which a greater cannot be thought actually exists, that is greater than the mere idea [Anselm]
Even the fool can hold 'a being than which none greater exists' in his understanding [Anselm]
Conceiving a greater being than God leads to absurdity [Anselm]
An existing thing is even greater if its non-existence is inconceivable [Anselm]
A perfection must be independent and unlimited, and the necessary existence of Anselm's second proof gives this [Malcolm on Anselm]
The word 'God' can be denied, but understanding shows God must exist [Anselm]
Guanilo says a supremely fertile island must exist, just because we can conceive it [Anselm]
Nonexistence is impossible for the greatest thinkable thing, which has no beginning or end [Anselm]
28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique
Anselm's first proof fails because existence isn't a real predicate, so it can't be a perfection [Malcolm on Anselm]