Combining Philosophers

Ideas for Michael Burke, Democritus (attrib) and Friedrich Nietzsche

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111 ideas

23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
Nietzsche rejects impersonal morality, and asserts the idea of living well [Nietzsche, by Nagel]
The question about egoism is: what kind of ego? since not all egos are equal [Nietzsche]
People do nothing for their real ego, but only for a phantom ego created by other people [Nietzsche]
The noble soul has reverence for itself [Nietzsche]
A wholly altruistic morality, with no egoism, is a thoroughly bad thing [Nietzsche]
Egoism is inescapable, and when it grows weak, the power of love also grows weak [Nietzsche]
Only the decline of aristocratic morality led to concerns about "egoism" [Nietzsche]
The ego is only a fiction, and doesn't exist at all [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 1. Contractarianism
Basic justice is the negotiation of agreement among equals, and the imposition of agreement [Nietzsche]
A masterful and violent person need have nothing to do with contracts [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
If you feel to others as they feel to themselves, you must hate a self-hater [Nietzsche]
The Golden Rule prohibits harmful actions, with the premise that actions will be requited [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / a. Nature of virtue
The great error is to think that happiness derives from virtue, which in turn derives from free will [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / b. Basis of virtue
First morality is force, then custom, then acceptance, then instinct, then a pleasure - and finally 'virtue' [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / c. Particularism
No two actions are the same [Nietzsche]
Moralities extravagantly address themselves to 'all', by falsely generalising [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
You are mastered by your own virtues, but you must master them, and turn them into tools [Nietzsche]
Many virtues are harmful traps, but that is why other people praise them [Nietzsche]
Virtue has been greatly harmed by the boringness of its advocates [Nietzsche]
Virtue is wasteful, as it reduces us all to being one another's nurse [Nietzsche]
Virtue for everyone removes its charm of being exceptional and aristocratic [Nietzsche]
Virtues must be highly personal; if not, it is merely respect for a concept [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / b. Living naturally
Be natural! But how, if one happens to be "unnatural"? [Nietzsche]
Not "return to nature", for there has never yet been a natural humanity [Nietzsche]
'Love your enemy' is unnatural, for the natural law says 'love your neighbour and hate your enemy' [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / c. Motivation for virtue
The 'good' man does the moral thing as if by nature, easily and gladly, after a long inheritance [Nietzsche]
Virtue is pursued from self-interest and prudence, and reduces people to non-entities [Nietzsche]
Be virtuous from duty, not from fear [Democritus (attr)]
Virtue doesn't just avoid evil, but also doesn't desire it [Democritus (attr)]
A bad life is just a drawn-out death [Democritus (attr)]
We would avoid a person who always needed reasons for remaining decent [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / d. Teaching virtue
Virtue comes more from practice than from nature [Democritus (attr)]
Repentance of shameful deeds is salvation [Democritus (attr)]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / e. Character
What does not kill us makes us stronger [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
The instinct of the herd, the majority, aims for the mean, in the middle [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / i. Absolute virtues
One must avoid even speaking of evil deeds [Democritus (attr)]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
A path to power: to introduce a new virtue under the name of an old one [Nietzsche]
All societies of good men give a priority to gratitude [Nietzsche]
Honesty is a new young virtue, and we can promote it, or not [Nietzsche]
Modesty, industriousness, benevolence and temperance are the virtues of a good slave [Nietzsche]
The Jews treated great anger as holy, and were in awe of those who expressed it [Nietzsche]
Christianity replaces rational philosophical virtues with great passions focused on God [Nietzsche]
The cardinal virtues want us to be honest, brave, magnanimous and polite [Nietzsche]
Virtues can destroy one another, through jealousy [Nietzsche]
The four virtues are courage, insight, sympathy, solitude [Nietzsche]
Courage, compassion, insight, solitude are the virtues, with courtesy a necessary vice [Nietzsche]
Many virtues are merely restraints on the most creative qualities of a human being [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / c. Justice
Justice (fairness) originates among roughly equal powers (as the Melian dialogues show) [Nietzsche]
When powerless one desires freedom; if power is too weak, one desires equal power ('justice') [Nietzsche]
The wrongdoer is more unfortunate than the person wronged [Democritus (attr)]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / d. Courage
Military idea: what does not kill me makes me stronger [Nietzsche]
Cool courage and feverish bravery have one name, but are two very different virtues [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / e. Honour
The supposed great lovers of honour (Alexander etc) were actually great despisers of honour [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / f. Compassion
Pity consoles those who suffer, because they see that they still have the power to hurt [Nietzsche]
Apart from philosophers, most people rightly have a low estimate of pity [Nietzsche]
You cannot advocate joyful wisdom while rejecting pity, because the two are complementary [Scruton on Nietzsche]
In ancient Rome pity was considered neither good nor bad [Nietzsche]
Plato, Spinoza and Kant are very different, but united in their low estimation of pity [Nietzsche]
Invalids are parasites [Nietzsche]
The overcoming of pity I count among the noble virtues [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / h. Respect
Teach youth to respect people who differ with them, not people who agree with them [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / c. Wealth
Small appetite makes poverty equal to wealth [Democritus (attr)]
People now find both wealth and poverty too much of a burden [Nietzsche]
The endless desire for money is a crueller slavery than poverty [Democritus (attr)]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 4. External Goods / d. Friendship
It is better to have one intelligent friend than many unintelligent [Democritus (attr)]
Many people are better at having good friends than being a good friend [Nietzsche]
Women can be friends with men, but only some physical antipathy will maintain it [Nietzsche]
If you want friends, you must be a fighter [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 1. Deontology
Each person should devise his own virtues and categorical imperative [Nietzsche]
Replace the categorical imperative by the natural imperative [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
Seeing duty as a burden makes it a bit cruel, and it can thus never become a habit [Nietzsche]
Guilt and obligation originated in the relationship of buying and selling, credit and debt [Nietzsche]
It is a great thing, when one is in adversity, to think of duty [Democritus (attr)]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 4. Categorical Imperative
To see one's own judgement as a universal law is selfish [Nietzsche]
The idea of the categorical imperative is just that we should all be very obedient [Nietzsche]
The categorical imperative needs either God behind it, or a metaphysic of the unity of reason [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 1. Utilitarianism
In Homer it is the contemptible person, not the harmful person, who is bad [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / E. Utilitarianism / 3. Motivation for Altruism
The morality of slaves is the morality of utility [Nietzsche]
Utilitarianism criticises the origins of morality, but still believes in it as much as Christians [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 1. Existentialism
Nietzsche tried to lead a thought-provoking life [Safranski on Nietzsche]
The greatest possibilities in man are still unexhausted [Nietzsche]
Not feeling harnessed to a system of 'ends' is a wonderful feeling of freedom [Nietzsche]
If faith is lost, people seek other authorities, in order to avoid the risk of willing personal goals [Nietzsche]
We could live more naturally, relishing the spectacle, and not thinking we are special [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 2. Nihilism
The ethical teacher exists to give purpose to what happens necessarily and without purpose [Nietzsche]
The greatest experience possible is contempt for your own happiness, reason and virtue [Nietzsche]
Initially nihilism was cosmic, but later Nietzsche saw it as a cultural matter [Nietzsche, by Ansell Pearson]
Nietzsche urges that nihilism be active, and will nothing itself [Nietzsche, by Zizek]
Nihilism results from measuring the world by our categories which are purely invented [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 3. Angst
The thought of suicide is a great reassurance on bad nights [Nietzsche]
The freedom of the subject means the collapse of moral certainty [Nietzsche, by Critchley]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
People do not experience boredom if they have never learned to work properly [Nietzsche]
To ward off boredom at any cost is vulgar [Nietzsche]
Flight from boredom leads to art [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 5. Existence-Essence
It is absurd to think you can change your own essence, like a garment [Nietzsche]
Over huge periods of time human character would change endlessly [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
Most people think they are already complete, but we can cultivate ourselves [Nietzsche]
Nietzsche thinks the human condition is to overcome and remake itself [Nietzsche, by Ansell Pearson]
By developing herd virtues man fixes what has up to now been the 'unfixed animal' [Nietzsche]
Virtues from outside are dangerous, and they should come from within [Nietzsche]
Virtuous people are inferior because they are not 'persons', but conform to a fixed pattern [Nietzsche]
To become what you are you must have no self-awareness [Nietzsche]
Man is the animal whose nature has not yet been fixed [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 7. Existential Action
Morality used to be for preservation, but now we can only experiment, giving ourselves moral goals [Nietzsche]
Nietzsche was fascinated by a will that can turn against itself [Nietzsche, by Safranski]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 8. Eternal Recurrence
Imagine if before each of your actions you had to accept repeating the action over and over again [Nietzsche]
Nietzsche says facing up to the eternal return of meaninglessness is the response to nihilism [Nietzsche, by Critchley]
Reliving life countless times - this gives the value back to life which religion took away [Nietzsche]
The great person engages wholly with life, and is happy to endlessly relive the life they created [Nietzsche]
Existence without meaning or goal or end, eternally recurring, is a terrible thought [Nietzsche]
Eternal recurrence is the highest attainable affirmation [Nietzsche]