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11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 4. Belief / d. Cause of beliefs

[what triggers beliefs]

12 ideas
How can a belief exist if its object doesn't exist? [Plato]
Belief is not an intellectual state or act, because propositions are affirmed or denied by the will [Descartes ,by Zagzebski]
When two ideas agree in my mind, I cannot refuse to see and know it [Locke]
'Natural beliefs' are unavoidable, whatever our judgements [Hume ,by Strawson,G]
Beliefs are built up by resemblance, contiguity and causation [Hume]
Belief is a feeling, independent of the will, which arises from uncontrolled and unknown causes [Hume]
We have an 'instinctive' belief in the external world, prior to all reflection [Russell]
Some beliefs are only inferred when needed, like 'Shakespeare had not telephone' [Fodor]
Beliefs are based on perception, memory, introspection or reason [Audi,R]
Some beliefs are fairly voluntary, and others are not at all so [Zagzebski]
Causal theories of belief make all beliefs true, and can't explain belief about the future [Lowe]
'Evidentialists' say, and 'voluntarists' deny, that we only believe on the basis of evidence [Engel]