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21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 4. Art as Expression

[personal expression is the essence of art]

18 ideas
Art aims only at beauty, of form, of idea, and (above all) of expression [Winckelmann, by Tolstoy]
Objects can be beautiful which express nothing at all, such as the rainbow [Herbart, by Tolstoy]
The highest feelings of mankind can only be transmitted by art [Tolstoy]
Art is when one man uses external signs to hand on his feelings to another man [Tolstoy]
True works of art transmit completely new feelings [Tolstoy]
Artists are not especially passionate, but they pretend to be [Nietzsche]
The experience of expression and communication are intermingled in art [Croce]
The emotion expressed is non-conscious, but feels oppressive until expression relieves it [Collingwood]
It is claimed that the expressive properties of artworks are non-physical [Wollheim]
Some say art must have verbalisable expression, and others say the opposite! [Wollheim]
Croce says art makes inarticulate intuitions conscious; rival views say the audience is the main concern [Scruton]
Romantics say music expresses ideas, or the Will, or intuitions, or feelings [Scruton]
Reference without predication is the characteristic of expression [Scruton]
Expression can be either necessary for art, or sufficient for art (or even both) [Kemp]
The horror expressed in some works of art could equallly be expressed by other means [Kemp]
We don't already know what to express, and then seek means of expressing it [Kemp]
Music may be expressive by being 'associated' with other emotional words or events [Davies,S]
It seems unlikely that sad music expresses a composer's sadness; it takes ages to write [Davies,S]