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26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 3. Final causes

[Greek view of ultimate aim as the cause]

5 ideas
The four causes are the material, the form, the source, and the end [Aristotle]
A final cause is simply a human desire [Spinoza]
Power rules in efficient causes, but wisdom rules in connecting them to final causes [Leibniz]
The idea of a final cause is very uncertain and unphilosophical [Hume]
We do not know the nature of one single causality [Nietzsche]