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26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 2. Particular Causation / e. Probabilistic causation

[causation in terms of probable consequences]

10 ideas
Probabilistic causal concepts are widely used in everyday life and in science [Salmon]
Probabilistic causation says C is a cause of E if it increases the chances of E occurring [Tooley on Mellor]
Singular causation requires causes to raise the physical probability of their effects [Mellor]
A cause won't increase the effect frequency if other causes keep interfering [Cartwright,N]
Probabilist laws are compatible with effects always or never happening [Tooley]
The actual cause may not be the most efficacious one [Tooley]
Quantum physics suggests that the basic laws of nature are probabilistic [Tooley]
Probabilistic causation is not a weak type of cause; it is just a probability of there being a cause [Heil]
The actual cause may make an event less likely than a possible more effective cause [Schaffer,J]
All four probability versions of causation may need causation to be primitive [Schaffer,J]