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8. Modes of Existence / C. Powers and Dispositions / 1. Powers

[nature of underlying powers]

30 ideas
Potentiality is a principle of change, in another thing, or as another thing [Aristotle]
Active 'dunamis' is best translated as 'power' or 'ability' (rather than 'potentiality') [Gill,ML on Aristotle]
Heavy and light are defined by their tendency to move down or up [Aristotle]
Boyle attacked a contemporary belief that powers were occult things [Alexander,P on Boyle]
We get the idea of power from our own actions, and the interaction of external bodies [Locke]
Power is active or passive, and has a relation to actions [Locke]
We can only know a thing's powers when we have combined it with many things [Locke]
Everything has a fixed power, as required by God, and by the possibility of reasoning [Leibniz]
Active force is not just potential for action, since it involves a real effort or striving [Leibniz]
Because of the definitions of cause, effect and power, cause and effect have the same power [Leibniz]
The immediate cause of movements is more real [than geometry] [Leibniz]
We discern active power from our minds, so mind must be involved in all active powers [Leibniz]
I use the word 'entelechy' for a power, to include endeavour, as well as mere aptitude [Leibniz]
A complete monad is a substance with primitive active and passive power [Leibniz]
There may well be powers in things, with which we are quite unacquainted [Hume]
Power is the possibility of action, as discovered by experience [Hume]
We get the idea of power by abstracting from ropes, magnets and electric shocks [Priestley]
Storms are wonderful expressions of free powers! [Nietzsche]
A property that cannot interact is worse than inert - it isn't there at all [Martin,CB]
Space, time, and some other basics, are not causal powers [Ellis]
Causal powers must necessarily act the way they do [Ellis]
Causal powers are often directional (e.g. centripetal, centrifugal, circulatory) [Ellis]
Energy was introduced to physics to refer to the 'store of potency' of a moving ball [Harré/Madden]
Some powers need a stimulus, but others are just released [Harré/Madden]
Some powers are variable, others cannot change (without destroying an identity) [Harré/Madden]
Powers have Directedness, Independence, Actuality, Intrinsicality and Objectivity [Molnar]
A power's type-identity is given by its definitive manifestation [Molnar]
Powers give explanations, without being necessary for some class membership [Chakravartty]
Science aims at identifying the structure and nature of the powers that exist [Jacobs]
Powers explain properties, causes, modality, events, and perhaps even particulars [Mumford/Anjum]