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2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 4. Aims of Reason

[what good reasoning aims to achieve]

27 ideas
We ought to follow where the argument leads us [Plato]
Assume our reason is in two parts, one for permanent first principles, and one for variable things [Aristotle]
Reason grasps generalities, while the senses grasp particulars [Aristotle]
Reasoning distinguishes what is beneficial, and hence what is right [Aristotle]
Reasoning is a way of making statements which makes them lead on to other statements [Aristotle]
Aristotle is the supreme optimist about the ability of logos to explain nature [Roochnik on Aristotle]
The mind is compelled by necessary truths, but not by contingent truths [Aquinas]
Methodical thinking is cautious, analytical, systematic, and panoramic [Descartes, by PG]
Reason says don't assent to uncertain principles, just as much as totally false ones [Descartes]
In so far as men live according to reason, they will agree with one another [Spinoza]
Without reason and human help, human life is misery [Spinoza]
The two basics of reasoning are contradiction and sufficient reason [Leibniz]
For Leibniz rationality is based on non-contradiction and the principle of sufficient reason [Leibniz, by Benardete,JA]
Reason keeps asking why until explanation is complete [Kant, by Korsgaard]
Religion and legislation can only be respected if they accept free and public examination [Kant]
All objections are dogmatic (against propositions), or critical (against proofs), or sceptical [Kant]
The hallmark of rationality is setting itself an end [Kant]
Reason aims to discover the unknown by thinking about the known [Peirce]
I reason in order to avoid disappointment and surprise [Peirce]
Rather than instrumental reason, Habermas emphasises its communicative role [Habermas, by Oksala]
Implication just accumulates conclusions, but inference may also revise our views [Harman]
Reasoning might be defined in terms of its functional role, which is to produce knowledge [Harman]
Consensus is the enemy of thought [Badiou]
We prefer reason or poetry according to whether basics are intelligible or not [Roochnik]
Good inference has mechanism, precision, scope, simplicity, fertility and background fit [Lipton]
Good reasoning will avoid contradiction, enhance coherence, not ignore evidence, and maximise evidence [O'Grady]
What justifies reliance on reason? Is it just a tool? Why is it better than blind belief? [Sen]