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10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 3. A Posteriori Necessary

[knowing what has to be, by means of experience]

10 ideas
Quine's indispensability argument said arguments for abstracta were a posteriori [Quine, by Yablo]
For Quine the only way to know a necessity is empirically [Quine, by Dancy,J]
Essentialists say natural laws are in a new category: necessary a posteriori [Ellis]
It is necessary that this table is not made of ice, but we don't know it a priori [Kripke]
Kripke has demonstrated that some necessary truths are only knowable a posteriori [Kripke, by Chalmers]
"'Hesperus' is 'Phosphorus'" is necessarily true, if it is true, but not known a priori [Kripke]
Theoretical identities are between rigid designators, and so are necessary a posteriori [Kripke]
How can you show the necessity of an a posteriori necessity, if it might turn out to be false? [Jackson]
Critics say there are just an a priori necessary part, and an a posteriori contingent part [Stalnaker]
The necessary a posteriori is statements either of identity or of essence [Sidelle]