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26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 4. Time / e. Existence of time

[whether time has independent existence]

10 ideas
If all of time has either ceased to exist, or has not yet happened, maybe time does not exist [Aristotle]
Time must be unlimited, but past and present can't be non-existent, and can't be now, so time does not exist [Sext.Empiricus]
The whole of the current year is not present, so how can it exist? [Augustine]
Time exists independently, and flow uniformly [Newton]
No time exists except instants, and instants are not even a part of time, so time does not exist [Leibniz]
Time doesn't exist, since its parts don't coexist [Leibniz]
There could be no time if nothing changed [McTaggart]
If three regions freeze every 3rd, 4th and 5th year, they all freeze together every 60 years [Shoemaker]
Time involves change, only the A-series explains change, but it involves contradictions, so time is unreal [Lowe]
Quantum states are measured by external time, of unknown origin [New Sci.]