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9. Objects / E. Objects over Time / 4. Four-Dimensionalism

[objects extend in both space and time]

22 ideas
Surely the past phases of a thing are not parts of the thing? [Broad]
A thing is simply a long event, linked by qualities, and spatio-temporal unity [Broad]
If short-lived happenings like car crashes are 'events', why not long-lived events like Dover Cliffs? [Broad]
Four-d objects helps predication of what no longer exists, and quantification over items from different times [Quine]
If things are successive instantaneous events, nothing requires those events to resemble one another [Harré/Madden]
It is easier to go from horses to horse-stages than from horse-stages to horses [Wiggins]
I could have died at five, but the summation of my adult stages could not [Noonan]
4-D says things are stretched in space and in time, and not entire at a time or at a location [Fine,K]
You can ask when the wedding was, but not (usually) when the bride was [Fine,K, by Simons]
4D: time is space-like; a thing is its history; past and future are real; or things extend in time [Gallois]
How can you identify temporal parts of tomatoes without referring to tomatoes? [Lowe]
Four-dimensionalists assert 'temporal parts', 'perduring', and being spread out over time [Sider]
4D says each spatiotemporal object must have a temporal part at every moment at which it exists [Sider]
4D says intrinsic change is difference between successive parts [Sider]
Perdurance needs an atemporal perspective, to say that the object 'has' different temporal parts [Hawley]
How does perdurance theory explain our concern for our own future selves? [Hawley]
If an object is the sum of all of its temporal parts, its mass is staggeringly large! [Hawley]
Perdurance says things are sums of stages; Stage Theory says each stage is the thing [Hawley]
If a life is essentially the sum of its temporal parts, it couldn't be shorter or longer than it was? [Hawley]
Four dimensional-objects are stranger than most people think [Simons]
Worm Perdurantism has a fusion of all the parts; Stage Perdurantism has one part at a time [Crisp,TM]
Four-dimensionalists say instantaneous objects are more fundamental than long-lived ones [Hawthorne]