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9. Objects / F. Identity among Objects / 6. Identity between Objects

[two objects turning out to be one object]

19 ideas
Two things relate either as same or different, or part of a whole, or the whole of the part [Plato]
Carneades denied the transitivity of identity [Chisholm on Carneades]
Identity between objects is not a consequence of identity, but part of what 'identity' means [Dummett on Frege]
Identity of physical objects is just being coextensive [Quine]
Identity statements can be contingent if they rely on descriptions [Kripke]
If Hesperus and Phosophorus are the same, they can't possibly be different [Kripke]
Identity statements make sense only if there are possible individuating conditions [Benacerraf]
There can't be vague identity; a and b must differ, since a, unlike b, is only vaguely the same as b [PG on Evans]
A is necessarily A, so if B is A, then B is also necessarily A [Wiggins]
Claims on contingent identity seem to violate Leibniz's Law [Gibbard]
Two things can never be identical, so there is no problem [Lewis]
All identity is necessary, though identity statements can be contingently true [McGinn]
'Lightning is electric discharge' and 'Phosphorus is Venus' are synthetic a posteriori identities [Lycan]
We would understand identity between objects, even if their existence was impossible [Fine,K]
If two things are equal, each side involves a necessity, so the equality is necessary [Gallois]
Occasional Identity: two objects can be identical at one time, and different at others [Hawley on Gallois]
Identities can be true despite indeterminate reference, if true under all interpretations [Schaffer,J]
Identical entities must be of the same category, and meet the criteria for the category [Thomasson]
Identity claims between objects are only well-formed if the categories are specified [Thomasson]