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25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism

[emphasis on rights and freedoms for individuals]

38 ideas
An obvious idea is a constitution based on maximum mutual freedom for citizens [Kant]
Actions are right if the maxim respects universal mutual freedoms [Kant]
A lawful civil state must embody freedom, equality and independence for its members [Kant]
Our aim is a constitution which combines maximum freedom with strong restraint [Kant]
The vitality of business needs maximum freedom (while avoiding harm to others) [Kant]
Prevention of harm to others is the only justification for exercising power over people [Mill]
The main argument for freedom is that interference with it is usually misguided [Mill]
The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it [Mill]
Liberal freedom is the right to be separate, and ignores the union of man with man [Marx]
The creation of institutions needs a determination which is necessarily anti-liberal [Nietzsche]
Theoretical and practical politics are both concerned with the best lives for individuals [Russell]
Liberalism's weakness is its powerful rigid bureaucracy [Gramsci]
People endorse equality, universality and inclusiveness, just by their communicative practices [Habermas, by Finlayson]
Rawls's account of justice relies on conventional fairness, avoiding all moral controversy [Gray on Rawls]
A legitimate system is one accepted as both impartial and reasonably partial [Nagel]
Only in the last 200 years have people demanded the democratic privilege of being individuals [Baudrillard]
States can't enforce mutual aid on citizens, or interfere for their own good [Nozick]
Liberalism does not need a comprehensive account of value [Nussbaum]
Liberalism tends to give priority to basic liberties [Kymlicka]
Marxists say liberalism is unjust, because it allows exploitation in the sale of labour [Kymlicka]
Modern liberalism has added personal privacy to our personal social lives [Kymlicka]
Liberals focus on universal human freedom, natural rights, and tolerance [Scruton, by PG]
Liberal freedom was a response to assigned destinies like caste and class [Sandel]
The self is 'unencumbered' if it can abandon its roles and commitments without losing identity [Sandel, by Shorten]
Liberals say rights always come first, and justice is neutral on social values [Sandel]
Liberal justice means the withdrawal of the self, as transcendental or as unencumbered [Sandel]
Liberalism may fail because it neglects the shared nature of what we pursue and protect [Haldane]
Liberal theory starts from the governed, not from the governor [May]
Classical liberalism seeks freedom of opinion, of private life, of expression, and of property [Micklethwait/Wooldridge]
Liberals mistakenly think individuals choose their values, without reference to the community [Swift]
The state fostered individualism, to break the power of family and community [Harari]
Liberalism should not make assumptions such as the value of choosing your own life plan [Shorten]
Liberal equality concerns rights, and liberal freedom concerns choice of ends [Shorten]
Liberal citizens have a moral requirement to respect freedom and equality [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism says welfare states and democracy needed a shared sense of nationality [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism encourages the promotion of nationalistic values [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism is more communitarian, and Constitutional Patriotism more cosmopolitan [Shorten]
Maybe the rational autonomous liberal individual is merely the result of domination [Shorten]