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19. Language / D. Theories of Reference / 4. Descriptive Reference / b. Reference by description

[reference is fixed by a description]

26 ideas
We can treat designation by a few words as a proper name [Frege]
Expressions always give ways of thinking of referents, rather than the referents themselves [Soames on Frege]
It is pure chance which descriptions in a person's mind make a name apply to an individual [Russell]
If an expression can refer to anything, it may still instrinsically refer, but relative to a context [Bach on Strawson,P]
The claim that scientific terms are incommensurable can be blocked if scientific terms are not descriptions [Putnam]
To explain the reference of a name, you must explain its sentence-role, so reference can't be defined nonlinguistically [Davidson]
Descriptive reference shows how to refer, how to identify two things, and how to challenge existence [PG on Kripke]
It can be necessary that Aristotle had the properties commonly attributed to him [Kripke]
Even if Gödel didn't produce his theorems, he's still called 'Gödel' [Kripke]
A definite description 'the F' is referential if the speaker could thereby be referring to something not-F [Sainsbury on Donnellan]
Donnellan is unclear whether the referential-attributive distinction is semantic or pragmatic [Bach on Donnellan]
A description can successfully refer, even if its application to the subject is not believed [Donnellan]
If descriptions are sufficient for reference, then I must accept a false reference if the descriptions fit [Evans]
Descriptive theories remain part of the theory of reference (with seven mild modifications) [Lewis]
What refers: indefinite or definite or demonstrative descriptions, names, indexicals, demonstratives? [Bach]
If we can refer to things which change, we can't be obliged to single out their properties [Bach]
We can think of an individual without have a uniquely characterizing description [Bach]
It can't be real reference if it could refer to some other thing that satisfies the description [Bach]
Since most expressions can be used non-referentially, none of them are inherently referential [Bach]
Just alluding to or describing an object is not the same as referring to it [Bach]
Because some entities overlap, reference must have analytic individuation principles [Sidelle]
Descriptivism says we mentally relate to objects through their properties [Recanati]
Definite descriptions reveal either a predicate (attributive use) or the file it belongs in (referential) [Recanati]
A rigid definite description can be attributive, not referential: 'the actual F, whoever he is….' [Recanati]
Singularity cannot be described, and it needs actual world relations [Recanati]
Problems with descriptivism are reference by perception, by communications and by indexicals [Recanati]