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8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 2. Internal Relations

[relations as intrinsic features of the things that are related]

9 ideas
For Hegel, things are incomplete, and contain external references in their own nature [Hegel]
Internal relations are said to be intrinsic properties of two terms, and of the whole they compose [Bradley, by Russell]
Relations must be linked to their qualities, but that implies an infinite regress of relations [Bradley]
A relation is internal if it is unthinkable that its object should not possess it [Wittgenstein]
The order of numbers is an internal relation, not an external one [Wittgenstein]
If causal relations are power manifestations, that makes them internal relations [Heil]
Relational properties are clearly not essential to substances [Macdonald]
The normal assumption is that relations depend on properties of the relata [Ladyman/Ross]
Internal relations depend either on the existence of the relata, or on their properties [Rami]