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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 13. Nominal Essence

[essence as derived from experiences of objects]

29 ideas
If you remove the accidents from a horse and a lion, the intellect can't tell them apart [Francis of Marchia]
The feature which picks out or names a thing is usually called its 'essence' [Hobbes]
Real essence explains observable qualities, but not what kind of thing it is [Locke ,by Jones,J-E]
'Nominal essence' is everything contained in the idea of a particular sort of thing [Locke ,by Copi]
The observable qualities are never the real essence, since they depend on real essence [Locke]
In nominal essence, Locke confuses the set of properties with the abstracted idea of them [Eagle on Locke]
Locke's real and nominal essence refers back to Aristotle's real and nominal definitions [Locke ,by Jones,J-E]
Nominal Essence is the abstract idea to which a name is attached [Locke]
Essences relate to sorting words; if you replace those with names, essences vanish [Locke]
Real essences are unknown, so only the nominal essence connects things to a species [Locke]
To be a nominal essence, a complex idea must exhibit unity [Locke]
Our ideas of substance are based on mental archetypes, but these come from the world [Locke]
For 'all gold is malleable' to be necessary, it must be part of gold's nominal essence [Locke]
Things have real essences, but we categorise them according to the ideas we receive [Locke]
We have a distinct idea of gold, to define it, but not a perfect idea, to understand it [Leibniz]
If two people apply a single term to different resemblances, they refer to two different things [Leibniz]
Locke needs many instances to show a natural kind, but why not a single instance? [Leibniz ,by Jolley]
In modern science, nominal essence is intended to be real essence [Copi]
'Real essence' makes it what it is; 'nominal essence' makes us categorise it a certain way [Ellis]
The nominal essence is the idea behind a name used for sorting [Wiggins]
Nominal essences don't fix membership, ignore evolution, and aren't contextual [Wiggins]
Words are fixed by being attached to similarity clusters, without mention of 'essences' [Dennett]
We distinguish objects by their attributes, not by their essences [Shalkowski]
We treat the core of a pattern as an essence, in order to keep track of it [Ladyman/Ross]
If kinds depend only on what can be observed, many underlying essences might produce the same kind [Eagle]
Nominal essence mistakenly gives equal weight to all underlying properties that produce appearances [Eagle]
Nominal essence are the observable properties of things [Eagle]
If essence is 'nominal', artificial gold (with its surface features) would qualify as 'gold' [Eagle]
Kripke and Putnam offer an intermediary between real and nominal essences [Almog]