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10. Modality / C. Sources of Modality / 1. Sources of Necessity

[general views on what gives rise to necessity]

29 ideas
Divine nature makes all existence and operations necessary, and nothing is contingent [Spinoza]
Necessity cannot be extracted from an empirical proposition [Kant]
All necessity arises from causation, which is conditioned; there is no absolute or unconditioned necessity [Schopenhauer]
The truth-maker for a truth must necessitate that truth [Armstrong]
Metaphysical necessities are those depending on the essential nature of things [Ellis]
I don't think possible worlds reductively reveal the natures of modal operators etc. [Kripke]
De re necessity arises from the way the world is [Newton-Smith]
If we are told the source of necessity, this seems to be a regress if the source is not already necessary [Blackburn]
If something underlies a necessity, is that underlying thing necessary or contingent? [Blackburn]
Objectual modal realists believe in possible worlds; non-objectual ones rest it on the actual world [McFetridge]
Modality is relations among abstract platonic properties [Jubien]
To analyse modality, we must give accounts of objects, properties and relations [Jubien]
Modality concerns relations among platonic properties [Jubien]
The subject of a proposition need not be the source of its necessity [Fine,K]
Each basic modality has its 'own' explanatory relation [Fine,K]
Every necessary truth is grounded in the nature of something [Fine,K]
The role of semantic necessity in semantics is like metaphysical necessity in metaphysics [Fine,K ,by Hale/Hoffmann,A]
Each area of enquiry, and its source, has its own distinctive type of necessity [Fine,K]
Rather than define counterfactuals using necessity, maybe necessity is a special case of counterfactuals [Williamson ,by Hale/Hoffmann,A]
It seems that we cannot show that modal facts depend on non-modal facts [Hale]
Explanation of necessity must rest on something necessary or something contingent [Hale]
Why is this necessary, and what is necessity in general; why is this necessary truth true, and why necessary? [Hale]
The explanation of a necessity can be by a truth (which may only happen to be a necessary truth) [Hale]
Humeans say that we decide what is necessary [Sider]
Modal terms in English are entirely contextual, with no modality outside the language [Sider]
Are necessary truths rooted in essences, or also in basic grounding laws? [Rosen]
Blackburn fails to show that the necessary cannot be grounded in the contingent [Cameron]
Possible worlds are just not suitable truthmakers for modality [Jacobs]
Maybe truths are necessitated by the facts which are their truthmakers [Mumford/Anjum]