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27. Natural Reality / D. Activity of Matter / 2. Forces

[whatever causes interactions between objects]

28 ideas
The ocean changes in volume in proportion to the attraction of the moon [Seneca]
'Force' is the quantity of movement imposed on something [Hobbes]
The corpuscular theory allows motion, but does not include forces between the particles [Boyle, by Alexander,P]
Newton's idea of force acting over a long distance was very strange [Newton]
Newton showed that falling to earth and orbiting the sun are essentially the same [Newton, by Ellis]
Newton introduced forces other than by contact [Newton, by Papineau]
Newton's laws cover the effects of forces, but not their causes [Newton, by Papineau]
Newton's forces were accused of being the scholastics' real qualities [Pasnau on Newton]
I am studying the quantities and mathematics of forces, not their species or qualities [Newton]
The aim is to discover forces from motions, and use forces to demonstrate other phenomena [Newton]
Boyle and Locke suspect forces of being occult [Locke, by Alexander,P]
An insurmountable force in a body keeps our hands apart when we handle it [Locke]
Some people return to scholastic mysterious qualities, disguising them as 'forces' [Leibniz]
Power is passive force, which is mass, and active force, which is entelechy or form [Leibniz]
All qualities of bodies reduce to forces [Leibniz]
It is plausible to think substances contain the same immanent force seen in our free will [Leibniz]
We need the metaphysical notion of force to explain mechanics, and not just extended mass [Leibniz]
Motion alone is relative, but force is real, and establishes its subject [Leibniz]
The force behind motion is like a soul, with its own laws of continual change [Leibniz]
Force in substance makes state follow state, and ensures the very existence of substance [Leibniz]
Clearly, force is that from which action follows, when unimpeded [Leibniz]
Leibniz uses 'force' to mean both activity and potential [Leibniz]
Gravity isn't a force, because it produces effects without diminishing [Mayer]
Force is supposed to cause acceleration, but acceleration is a mathematical fiction. [Russell]
Maxwell introduced real fields, which transferred forces from point to point [Heisenberg]
I deny forces as entities that intervene in causation, but are not themselves causal [Ellis]
The strong force pulls, but also pushes apart if nucleons get too close together [Inwagen]
By 'force' I mean the sources of all actions - sometimes called 'powers' by their outcomes [Breheny]