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27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 2. Thermodynamics / a. Energy

[universal physical stuff involved in all actions]

8 ideas
Helmholtz used 'energy' to mathematically link heat, light, electricity and magnetism [Helmholtz]
Energy has progressed from a mere formula, to a principle pervading all nature [Kelvin]
Energy is that which moves, and is the substance from which everything is made [Heisenberg]
Energy is an unchanging substance, having many forms, and causing all change [Heisenberg]
Energy is the key multi-valued property, vital to scientific realism [Ellis]
'Energy' is a quasi-substance invented as the bearer of change during interactions [Harré/Madden]
'Kinetic energy' is used to explain the effects of moving things when they are stopped [Harré/Madden]
Thermodynamics introduced work and entropy, to understand steam engine efficiency [Hesketh]