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8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 4. Uninstantiated Universals

[universals existing apart from their actual instances]

12 ideas
Normal existence is in time, so we must say that universals 'subsist' [Russell]
It is claimed that some universals are not exemplified by any particular, so must exist separately [Armstrong]
Uninstantiated properties must be defined using the instantiated ones [Quinton]
Nominalists cannot translate 'red resembles pink more than blue' into particulars [Jackson]
Uninstantiated properties are useful in philosophy [Oliver]
Uninstantiated universals seem to exist if they themselves have properties [Oliver]
'There are shapes which are never exemplified' is the toughest example for nominalists [Hoffman/Rosenkrantz]
Particulars are instantiations, and universals are instantiables [Lowe]
Maybe universals are real, if properties themselves have properties, and relate to other properties [Moreland]
How could 'being even', or 'being a father', or a musical interval, exist naturally in space? [Moreland]
A naturalist and realist about universals is forced to say redness can be both moving and stationary [Moreland]
There are spatial facts about red particulars, but not about redness itself [Moreland]