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8. Modes of Existence / D. Universals / 5. Universals as Concepts

[universals taken to exist just as mental features]

6 ideas
If universals are not separate, we can isolate them by abstraction [Boethius, by Panaccio]
Species and genera are individual concepts which naturally signify many individuals [William of Ockham]
If we identify whiteness with a thought, we can never think of it twice; whiteness is the object of a thought [Russell]
Using 'green' is a commitment to future usage of 'green' [Wittgenstein]
A child first sees objects as distinct, and later as members of groups [Wilson,EO]
Prior to language, concepts are universals created by self-mapping of brain activity [Edelman/Tononi]