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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 10. Essence as Species

[essence for animals is the species they belong to]

18 ideas
Generalities like man and horse are not substances, but universal composites of account and matter [Aristotle]
Genera are not substances, and do not exist apart from the ingredient species [Aristotle]
'Categories' answers 'what?' with species, genus, differerentia; 'Met.' Z.17 seeks causal essence [Aristotle, by Wedin]
Standardly, Aristotelian essences are taken to be universals of the species [Aristotle, by Witt]
In 'Met.' he says genera can't be substances or qualities, so aren't in the ontology [Aristotle, by Frede,M]
Generic terms like 'man' are not substances, but qualities, relations, modes or some such thing [Aristotle]
In our ideas, the idea of essence is inseparable from the concept of a species [Locke]
If we based species on real essences, the individuals would be as indistinguishable as two circles [Locke]
Internal constitution doesn't decide a species; should a watch contain four wheels or five? [Locke]
For some sorts, a member of it is necessarily a member [Leibniz]
Truths about species are eternal or necessary, but individual truths concern what exists [Leibniz]
Kripke says internal structure fixes species; I say it is genetic affinity and a common descent [Kripke, by Dummett]
Given that Nixon is indeed a human being, that he might not have been does not concern knowledge [Kripke]
Things that gradually change, like species, can still have essences [Devitt]
Essentialism concerns the nature of a group, not its category [Devitt]
It seems that species lack essential properties, so they can't be natural kinds [Dupré]
A species might have its essential genetic mechanism replaced by a new one [Dupré]
Alien 'tigers' can't be tigers if they are not related to our tigers [Almog]