structure for 'Reason'    |     alphabetical list of themes    |     expand these ideas

2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 1. On Reason

[general role of reason in mind and living]

29 ideas
Parmenides was much more cautious about accepting ideas than his predecessors [Simplicius on Parmenides]
It is foolish to quarrel with the mind's own reasoning processes [Plato]
When questions are doubtful we should concentrate not on objects but on ideas of the intellect [Plato]
There is pure deductive reasoning, and explanatory demonstration reasoning [Politis on Aristotle]
Didactic argument starts from the principles of the subject, not from the opinions of the learner [Aristotle]
We are coerced into assent to a truth by reason's violence [Aquinas]
Descartes created the modern view of rationality, as an internal feature instead of an external vision [Taylor,C on Descartes]
A reason is a known truth which leads to assent to some further truth [Leibniz]
Reason is the faculty for grasping apriori necessary truths [Burge on Leibniz]
Reason is our power of finding out true propositions [Hutcheson]
Reason leads to prudent selfishness, but overruling natural compassion [Rousseau]
In reason things can only begin if they are voluntary [Kant]
If I know the earth is a sphere, and I am on it, I can work out its area from a small part [Kant]
The boundaries of reason can only be determined a priori [Kant]
Highest reason is aesthetic, and truth and good are subordinate to beauty [Hegel]
For clear questions posed by reason, reason can also find clear answers [Gödel]
Entailment and validity are relations, but inference is a human activity [Searle]
Theory involves accepting conclusions, and so is a special case of practical reason [Searle]
The rules of reasoning are not the rules of logic [Harman]
It is a principle of reasoning not to clutter your mind with trivialities [Harman]
If there is a great cost to avoiding inconsistency, we learn to reason our way around it [Harman]
Logic has little relevance to reasoning, except when logical conclusions are immediate [Harman]
You can be rational with undetected or minor inconsistencies [Harman]
Inference is never a conscious process [Harman]
Many forms of reasoning, such as extrapolation and analogy, are useful but deductively invalid [Mumford]
Traditionally, rational beliefs are those which are justified by reasons [Psillos]
Consistency is modal, saying propositions are consistent if they could be true together [Melia]
Rationality is threatened by fear of inconsistency, illusions of absolutes or relativism, and doubt [Fogelin]
We reach 'reflective equilibrium' when intuitions and theory completely align [Fisher]