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27. Natural Reality / C. Biology / 5. Species

[dividing living things into distinct groups]

13 ideas
The natural offspring of a lion is called a 'lion' (but what about the offspring of a king?) [Plato]
Things are limited by the species to certain modes of being [Olivi]
Consciousness is said to distinguish man from animals - consciousness of his own species [Feuerbach]
'Tiger' designates a species, and merely looking like the species is not enough [Kripke]
Tigers may lack all the properties we originally used to identify them [Kripke]
The original concept of 'cat' comes from paradigmatic instances [Kripke]
The higher categories are not natural kinds, so the Linnaean hierarchy should be given up [Devitt]
Species pluralism says there are several good accounts of what a species is [Devitt]
We name species as small to share properties, but large enough to yield generalisations [Devitt]
Species are phenetic, biological, niche, or phylogenetic-cladistic [PG on Devitt]
The theory of evolution is mainly about species [Dupré]
Species are the lowest-level classification in biology [Dupré]
Virtually all modern views of speciation rest on relational rather than intrinsic features [Okasha]