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27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 2. Time / a. Time

[general ideas about time]

33 ideas
Time has parts, but the now is not one of them, and time is not composed of nows [Aristotle]
Stoics say time is incorporeal and self-sufficient; Epicurus says it is a property of properties of things [Epicurus]
Does time exist on its own? Did anything precede it? Did it pre-exist the cosmos? [Seneca]
How can time be divisible if we can't compare one length of time with another? [Sext.Empiricus]
I know what time is, until someone asks me to explain it [Augustine]
Eternity coexists with passing time, as the centre of a circle coexists with its circumference [Aquinas]
The past has ceased to exist, and the future does not yet exist, so time does not exist [William of Ockham]
If there is no uniform motion, we cannot exactly measure time [Newton]
We can never show that two successive periods of time were equal [Locke]
If everything in the universe happened a year earlier, there would be no discernible difference [Leibniz]
Time is the order of inconsistent possibilities [Leibniz]
That times cannot be simultaneous is synthetic, so it is known by intuition, not analysis [Kant]
The three modes of time are persistence, succession and simultaneity [Kant]
If time involved succession, we must think of another time in which succession occurs [Kant]
Time may be defined as the possibility of mutually exclusive conditions of the same thing [Schopenhauer]
A-series uses past, present and future; B-series uses 'before' and 'after' [McTaggart, by Girle]
A-series expressions place things in time, and their truth varies; B-series is relative, and always true [McTaggart, by Lowe]
For McTaggart time is seen either as fixed, or as relative to events [McTaggart, by Ayer]
The B-series must depend on the A-series, because change must be explained [McTaggart, by Le Poidevin]
We never experience times, but only succession of events [Russell]
The direction of time is grounded in the direction of causation [Reichenbach, by Ladyman/Ross]
A-theory says past, present, future and flow exist; B-theory says this just reports our perspective [Le Poidevin]
In the B-series, time-positions are unchanging; in the A-series they change (from future to present to past) [Le Poidevin]
It is the view of the future that really decides between tensed and tenseless views of time [Le Poidevin]
Time could be discrete (like integers) or dense (rationals) or continuous (reals) [Hawley]
The central question in the philosophy of time is: How alike are time and space? [Sider]
If time passes, presumably it passes at one second per second [Maudlin]
The only three theories are Presentism, Dynamic (A-series) Eternalism and Static (B-series) Eternalism [Crisp,TM]
Time is tensed or tenseless; the latter says all times and objects are real, and there is no passage of time [Bourne]
B-series objects relate to each other; A-series objects relate to the present [Bourne]
Causation is the power of one property to produce another, and this gives time its direction [Esfeld]
The barman called 'Time!', and Augustine said..... [Sommers,W]
The past, present and future walked into a bar.... [Sommers,W]