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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 2. Types of Essence

[distinctions about how essence should be understood]

16 ideas
Only universals have essence [Politis on Plato]
Aristotelian essences are causal, not classificatory [Witt on Aristotle]
An essence can either be universal (in the mind) or singular (in concrete particulars) [Panaccio on Avicenna]
Specific individual essence is defined by material, and generic essence is defined by form [Aquinas]
Locke may distinguish real essence from internal constitution, claiming the latter are knowable [Jones,J-E on Locke]
'Individual essences' fix a particular individual, and 'kind essences' fix the kind it belongs to [Ellis]
For Kripke, essence is origin; for Putnam, essence is properties; for Wiggins, essence is membership of a kind [Mautner on Kripke]
Does Socrates have essential properties, plus a unique essence (or 'haecceity') which entails them? [Plantinga]
Aristotelian and Kripkean essentialism are very different theories [Witt]
Essences are either taken as real definitions, or as necessary properties [Fine,K]
How do we distinguish basic from derived esssences? [Fine,K]
Maybe some things have essential relationships as well as essential properties [Fine,K]
Causal reference presupposes essentialism if it refers to modally extended entities [Sidelle]
Essentialism: real or representational? sortal, causal or ideal? real particulars, or placeholders? [Gelman]
Deep essentialist objects have intrinsic properties that fix their nature; the shallow version makes it contextual [Paul,LA]
Modern views want essences just to individuate things across worlds and times [Koslicki]