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15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 3. Abstraction by mind

[singling out properties and parts of reality for special attention]

26 ideas
Abstracting A from B generates truth, as long as the connection is not denied [Aquinas]
Abstractive cognition knows universals abstracted from many singulars [William of Ockham]
If an animal approached from a distance, we might abstract 'animal' from one instance [William of Ockham]
We know by abstraction because we only understand composite things a part at a time [Arnauld,A/Nicole,P]
The mind creates abstract ideas by considering qualities separated from their objects [Berkeley]
I can only combine particulars in imagination; I can't create 'abstract' ideas [Berkeley]
We can focus our minds on what is common to a whole class, neglecting other aspects [Mill]
Leaves are unequal, but we form the concept 'leaf' by discarding their individual differences [Nietzsche]
Husserl identifies a positive mental act of unification, and a negative mental act for differences [Husserl, by Frege]
Before we can abstract from an instance of violet, we must first recognise it [Price,HH]
If judgement of a characteristic is possible, that part of abstraction must be complete [Price,HH]
There may be degrees of abstraction which allow recognition by signs, without full concepts [Price,HH]
There is pre-verbal sign-based abstraction, as when ice actually looks cold [Price,HH]
Intelligent behaviour, even in animals, has something abstract about it [Price,HH]
A big flea is a small animal, so 'big' and 'small' cannot be acquired by abstraction [Geach]
We cannot learn relations by abstraction, because their converse must be learned too [Geach]
Memory requires abstraction, as reminders of what cannot be fully remembered [Martin,CB]
Maybe abstraction is just mereological subtraction [Lewis]
Mental abstraction does not make what is abstracted mind-dependent [Heil]
We apprehend small, finite mathematical structures by abstraction from patterns [Shapiro]
Properties are facets of objects, only discussable separately by an act of abstraction [Lowe]
We can abstract by taking an exemplary case and ignoring the detail [Machamer/Darden/Craver]
The mind abstracts ways things might be, which are nonetheless real [Read]
Abstractions are formed by the mind when it concentrates on some, but not all, the features of a thing [Moreland]
Geometrical circles cannot identify a circular paint patch, presumably because they lack something [Szabó]
Neural networks can extract the car-ness of a car, or the chair-ness of a chair [New Sci.]