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9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 2. Substance / a. Substance

[general ideas about notion of unified substances]

38 ideas
Is primary substance just an ultimate subject, or some aspect of a complex body? [Gill,ML on Aristotle]
Primary being is 'that which lies under', or 'particular substance' [Politis on Aristotle]
Substances have no opposites, and don't come in degrees (including if the substance is a man) [Aristotle]
A single substance can receive contrary properties [Aristotle]
If substance is the basis of reality, then philosophy aims to understand substance [Aristotle]
The baffling question of what exists is asking about the nature of substance [Aristotle]
The Pre-Socratics were studying the principles, elements and causes of substance [Aristotle]
'Ousia' is 'primary being' not 'primary substance' [Politis on Aristotle]
Substance is prior in being separate, in definition, and in knowledge [Witt on Aristotle]
It is wrong to translate 'ousia' as 'substance' [Politis on Aristotle]
Substance is not predicated of anything - but it still has something underlying it, that originates it [Aristotle]
We only infer underlying natures by analogy, observing bronze of a statue, or wood of a bed [Aristotle]
Stoics say matter has qualities, and substance underlies it, with no form or qualities [Chalcidius on Zeno of Citium]
Substance is only grasped under the general heading of 'being' [Duns Scotus]
Substance is an intrinsic thing, so parts of substances can't also be intrinsic things [Duns Scotus]
Substances are incomplete unless they have modes [Pasnau on Suárez]
Knowing the attributes is enough to reveal a substance [Descartes]
If we perceive an attribute, we infer the existence of some substance [Descartes]
Powers are part of our idea of substances [Locke]
The complete notion of a substance implies all of its predicates or attributes [Leibniz]
Individuality is in the bond substance gives between past and future [Leibniz]
The concept of forces or powers best reveals the true concept of substance [Leibniz]
A body is a unified aggregate, unless it has an indivisible substance [Leibniz]
Unity needs an indestructible substance, to contain everything which will happen to it [Leibniz]
Every bodily substance must have a soul, or something analogous to a soul [Leibniz]
The notion of substance is one of the keys to true philosophy [Leibniz]
Every substance is alive [Leibniz]
A substance could exist as a subject, but not as a mere predicate [Kant]
We can retain the idea of 'substance', as indestructible mass or energy [Heisenberg]
Traditional substance is separate from properties and capable of independent existence [Crane]
Substances bear properties, so must be simple, and not consist of further substances [Heil]
Maybe 'substance' is more of a mass-noun than a count-noun [Cover/O'Leary-Hawthorne]
Substances, unlike aggregates, can survive a change of parts [Mumford]
Unlike bundles of properties, substances have an intrinsic unity [Macdonald]
Corpuscularian critics of scholasticism say only substances exist [Pasnau]
Corpuscularianism promised a decent account of substance [Pasnau]
Scholastics wanted to treat Aristotelianism as physics, rather than as metaphysics [Pasnau]
If crowds are things at all, they seem to be Substances, since they bear properties [Pasnau]