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26. Natural Theory / A. Speculations on Nature / 6. Early Matter Theories / e. Ultimate substances

[proposals for one basic substance in nature]

7 ideas
Thales said water is the first principle, perhaps from observing that food is moist [Thales, by Aristotle]
For Anaximenes nature is air, which takes different forms by rarefaction and condensation [Anaximenes, by Simplicius]
Anaxagoras said that the number of principles was infinite [Anaxagoras, by Aristotle]
Everything is ultimately a variation of one underlying thing [Diogenes of Apollonia]
Air is divine, because it is in and around everything, and arranges everything [Diogenes of Apollonia]
In nature there is just one infinite substance [Spinoza]
Newton's four fundamentals are: space, time, matter and force [Newton, by Russell]