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22. Metaethics / A. Ethical Ends / 6. Pleasure / a. Nature of pleasure

[what exactly pleasure is]

10 ideas
Some of the pleasures and pains we feel are false [Plato]
Pleasure and pain are perceptions of things as good or bad [Aristotle]
For Aristotle, pleasure is the perception of particulars as valuable [Achtenberg on Aristotle]
True pleasure is not debauchery, but freedom from physical and mental pain [Epicurus]
Pleasure is a passive state in which the mind increases in perfection [Spinoza]
Pleasure is a sense of perfection [Leibniz]
Intelligent pleasure is the perception of beauty, order and perfection [Leibniz]
Pleasure needs dissatisfaction, boundaries and resistances [Nietzsche]
Pleasure and pain are mere epiphenomena, and achievement requires that one desire both [Nietzsche]
People want to fulfill their desires, but also for their desires to be sustained [Frankfurt]