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2. Reason / F. Fallacies / 4. Circularity

[line of reasoning which just leads back to its start]

8 ideas
Clear and distinct conceptions are true because a perfect God exists [Descartes]
Once it is clear that there is a God who is no deceiver, I conclude that clear and distinct perceptions must be true [Descartes]
It is circular to make truth depend on believing God's existence is true [Arnauld on Descartes]
Descartes is right that in the Christian view only God can guarantee the reliability of senses [Nietzsche on Descartes]
I know the truth that God exists and is the author of truth [Descartes]
One sort of circularity presupposes a premise, the other presupposes a rule being used [Braithwaite, by Devitt]
Maybe reasonableness requires circular justifications - that is one coherentist view [Field,H]
Circular arguments are formally valid, though informally inadmissible [Hanna]