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22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / e. Means and ends

[target values, and values in achieving them]

6 ideas
If one does not hope, one will not find the unhoped-for, since nothing leads to it [Heraclitus]
We desire final things just for themselves, and not for the sake of something else [Aristotle]
How can an action be intrinsically good if it is a means to 'eudaimonia'? [Ackrill on Aristotle]
Knowledge, wisdom and goodness only have value relative to a goal [Nietzsche]
All moral judgements ultimately concern the value of ends [Rashdall]
An instrumentally good thing might stay the same, but change its value because of circumstances [Ross]