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27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 2. Beginning

[how the universe began]

15 ideas
Originally there must have been just Existence, which could not come from non-existence [Anon (Upan)]
The cosmos is eternal not created, and is an ever-living and changing fire [Heraclitus]
Nothing could come out of nothing [Melissus]
Movement is transmitted through everything, and it must have started with self-generated motion [Plato]
If the prime origin is destroyed, it will not come into being again out of anything [Plato]
If the cosmos is an object of perception then it must be continually changing [Plato]
Everyone agrees that the world had a beginning, but thinkers disagree over whether it will end [Aristotle]
Even if the world is caused by fate, mind and nature are still prior causes [Aristotle]
Something which both moves and is moved is intermediate, so it follows that there must be an unmoved mover [Aristotle]
The first mover is necessary, and because it is necessary it is good [Aristotle]
Do things come to be from what is, or from what is not? Both seem problematical. [Aristotle]
Nothing can be created by divine power out of nothing [Lucretius]
Heaven and earth must be created, because they are subject to change [Augustine]
Maybe the universe is fine-tuned because it had to be, despite plans by God or Nature? [Heil]
Scholastic authors agree that matter was created by God, out of nothing [Pasnau]