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26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 1. Basis of Nature

[question of the basic components of reality]

20 ideas
Thales said water is the first principle, perhaps from observing that food is moist [Aristotle on Thales]
For Anaximenes nature is air, which takes different forms by rarefaction and condensation [Simplicius on Anaximenes]
Reason tells us that all things are one [Heraclitus]
Reality is symmetrical and balanced, like a sphere, with no reason to be greater one way rather than another [Parmenides]
Anaxagoras said that the number of principles was infinite [Aristotle on Anaxagoras]
If there are many things they must have a finite number, but there must be endless things between them [Zeno of Elea]
Everything is ultimately a variation of one underlying thing [Diogenes of Apollonia]
Everything partakes of the One in some way [Plato]
Some things do not partake of the One [Plato]
It doesn't explain the world to say it was originally all one. How did it acquire diversity? [Aristotle]
Why are some things destructible and others not? [Aristotle]
Nothing natural is disorderly, because nature is responsible for all order [Aristotle]
Matter can't just be Descartes's geometry, because a filler of the spaces is needed [Descartes]
Newton's four fundamentals are: space, time, matter and force [Russell on Newton]
We are so far from understanding the workings of natural bodies that it is pointless to even try [Locke]
Extension and impenetrability together make the concept of matter [Kant]
If space and time exist absolutely, we must assume to existence of two pointless non-entities [Kant]
Physics aim for a list of natural properties [Lewis]
'Physical' means either figuring in physics descriptions, or just located in space-time [Lycan]
Locke's solidity is not matter, because that is impenetrability and hardness combined [Robinson,H]