structure for 'Modes of Existence'    |     alphabetical list of themes    |     expand these ideas

8. Modes of Existence / A. Relations / 1. Nature of Relations

[what we should understand a relation to be]

34 ideas
Aristotle said relations are not substances, so (if they exist) they must be accidents [Aristotle, by Heil]
The separation from here to there is not the same as the separation from there to here [Aristotle]
The only reality in the category of Relation is things from another category [Henry of Ghent]
Relations do not add anything to reality, though they are real aspects of the world [Olivi]
The single imagined 'interval' between things only exists in the intellect [Auriol]
Relations are expressed either as absolute facts, or by a relational concept [William of Ockham]
The ratio between two lines can't be a feature of one, and cannot be in both [Leibniz]
A man's distant wife dying is a real change in him [Leibniz]
If relations can be reduced to, or supervene on, monadic properties of relata, they are not real [Leibniz, by Swoyer]
Relations aren't in any monad, so they are distributed, so they are not real [Leibniz]
Peirce and others began the mapping out of relations [Peirce, by Hart,WD]
With asymmetrical relations (before/after) the reduction to properties is impossible [Russell]
The only thing we can say about relations is that they relate [Russell]
Relational propositions seem to be 'about' their terms, rather than about the relation [Russell]
Philosophers of logic and maths insisted that a vocabulary of relations was essential [Russell, by Heil]
Because we depend on correspondence, we know relations better than we know the items that relate [Russell]
That Edinburgh is north of London is a non-mental fact, so relations are independent universals [Russell]
There is no complexity without relations, so no propositions, and no truth [Russell]
The 'positionalist' view of relations says the number of places is fixed, but not the order [Fine,K]
The 'standard' view of relations is that they hold of several objects in a given order [Fine,K]
Language imposes a direction on a road which is not really part of the road [Fine,K]
A block on top of another contains one relation, not both 'on top of' and 'beneath' [Fine,K]
Explain biased relations as orderings of the unbiased, or the unbiased as permutation classes of the biased? [Fine,K]
We want the ontology of relations, not just a formal way of specifying them [Heil]
Two people are indirectly related by height; the direct relation is internal, between properties [Heil]
Maybe all the other features of the world can be reduced to relations [Heil]
Most philosophers now (absurdly) believe that relations fully exist [Heil]
Scholastics treat relations as two separate predicates of the relata [Cover/O'Leary-Hawthorne]
A relation is a feature of multiple objects taken together [Sider]
It may be that internal relations like proportion exist, because we directly perceive it [MacBride]
All relations between spatio-temporal objects are either spatio-temporal, or causal [Bourne]
It is a necessary condition for the existence of relations that both of the relata exist [Bourne]
Relations without relata must be treated as universals, with their own formal properties [Ladyman/Ross]
A belief in relations must be a belief in things that are related [Ladyman/Ross]