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9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 1. Essences of Objects

[idea that objects have essences, as well as other features]

26 ideas
Aristotelian essence underlies behaviour, or underlies definition, or is the source of existence [Aristotle, by Aquinas]
Aristotelian essence is retained with identity through change, and bases our scientific knowledge [Aristotle, by Copi]
Aristotle says changing, material things (and not just universals) have an essence [Aristotle, by Politis]
Are essences actually universals? [Aristotle, by Politis]
It is by having essence that things exist [Aquinas]
The essence of a thing is what is required for it to exist or be conceived [Spinoza]
Particular substances are coexisting ideas that seem to flow from a hidden essence [Locke]
The best I can make of real essence is figure, size and connection of solid parts [Locke]
Real essence is the constitution of the unknown parts of a body which produce its qualities [Locke]
A true being must (unlike a chain) have united parts, with a substantial form as its subject [Leibniz]
Subjects include predicates, so full understanding of subjects reveals all the predicates [Leibniz]
Basic predicates give the complete concept, which then predicts all of the actions [Leibniz]
Essences exist in the divine understanding [Leibniz]
The essence of a circle is the equality of its radii [Leibniz]
Heidegger seeks a non-traditional concept of essence as 'essential unfolding' [Heidegger, by Polt]
Kripke and others have made essentialism once again respectable [Ellis]
Socrates is a contingent being, but his essence is not; without Socrates, his essence is unexemplified [Plantinga]
Aristotelian essentialism says essences are not relative to specification [Lewis]
Serious essentialism says everything has essences, they're not things, and they ground necessities [Shalkowski]
Can the essence of an object circularly involve itself, or involve another object? [Fine,K]
Essences are real, about being, knowable, definable and classifiable [Oderberg, by PG]
Essentialism is either natural to us, or an accident of our culture, or a necessary result of language [Gelman]
Children's concepts include nonobvious features, like internal parts, functions and causes [Gelman]
In India, upper-castes essentialize caste more than lower-castes do [Gelman]
Essentialism must avoid both reduplication of essences, and multiple occupancy by essences [Mackie,P]
An essence and what merely follow from it are distinct [Koslicki]