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23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 3. Universalisability

[seeing rules for action as universal guidelines]

38 ideas
The essence of propriety is consistency [Cicero]
Rational people are self-interested, but also desire the same goods for other people [Spinoza]
A rational person will want others to have the goods he seeks for himself [Spinoza]
The intuition behind the categorical imperative is that one ought not to make an exception of oneself [Kant, by Finlayson]
The categorical imperative smells of cruelty [Nietzsche on Kant]
Almost any precept can be consistently universalized [MacIntyre on Kant]
The categorical imperative will not suggest maxims suitable for testing [MacIntyre on Kant]
I can universalize a selfish maxim, if it is expressed in a way that only applies to me [Kant]
Act according to a maxim you can will as a universal law [Kant]
If lying were the universal law it would make promises impossible [Kant]
Act as if your maxim were to become a universal law of nature [Kant]
Suicide, false promises, neglected talent, and lack of charity all involve contradictions of principle [Kant, by PG]
No one would lend money unless a universal law made it secure, even after death [Kant]
Universality determines the will, and hence extends self-love into altruism [Kant]
You can't have a morality which is supplied by the individual, but is also genuinely universal [Hegel, by MacIntyre]
Why couldn't all rational beings accept outrageously immoral rules of conduct? [Mill]
The idea of the categorical imperative is just that we should all be very obedient [Nietzsche]
To see one's own judgement as a universal law is selfish [Nietzsche]
The categorical imperative needs either God behind it, or a metaphysic of the unity of reason [Nietzsche]
An act may be described in innumerable ways [Ross]
When my personal freedom becomes involved, I must want freedom for everyone else [Sartre]
Universalising a maxim needs to first stipulate the right description for the action [Anscombe]
The categorical imperative leads to utilitarianism [Hare, by Nagel]
Moral judgements must invoke some sort of principle [Hare]
Consistency presupposes intrinsic description [Taylor,C]
Why should I think of myself as both the legislator and the citizen who follows the laws? [Williams,B]
If the self becomes completely impartial, it no longer has enough identity to worry about its interests [Williams,B]
Check your rationality by thinking of your opinion pronounced by the supreme court [Rawls]
In ethics we abstract from our identity, but not from our humanity [Nagel]
I can only universalise a maxim if everyone else could also universalise it [Nagel]
The general form of moral reasoning is putting yourself in other people's shoes [Nagel]
As far as possible we should become instruments to realise what is best from an eternal point of view [Nagel]
If we can decide how to live after stepping outside of ourselves, we have the basis of a moral theory [Nagel]
We should see others' viewpoints, but not lose touch with our own values [Nagel]
'What if everybody did that?' rather misses the point as an objection to cheating [Graham]
As soon as we drop self-interest and judge impartially, we find ourselves agreeing about conflicts [Scruton]
The categorical imperative is not just individual, but can be used for negotiations between strangers [Scruton]
One can universalise good advice, but that doesn't make it an obligation [Finlayson]