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22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / j. Ethics by convention

[morals as social rules, rather than private or true]

27 ideas
Nomos is king [Pindar]
Early sophists thought convention improved nature; later they said nature was diminished by it [Protagoras]
We should follow the law in public, and nature in private [Antiphon]
To gain the greatest advantage only treat law as important when other people are present [Antiphon]
Socrates conservatively assumed that Athenian conventions were natural and true [Taylor,R on Socrates]
Every apparent crime can be right in certain circumstances [Anon (Diss) ,by PG]
As religion and convention collapsed, Plato sought morals not just in knowledge, but in the soul [Williams,B on Plato]
The Cynics rejected what is conventional as irrational, and aimed to live by nature [Taylor,R on Diogenes of Sin.]
Cyrenaics teach that honour, justice and shame are all based on custom and fashion [Aristippus young ,by Diog. Laertius]
Aristotle said there are two levels of virtue - the conventional and the intellectual [Taylor,R on Aristotle]
Moral acts are so varied that they must be convention, not nature [Aristotle]
Some say slavery is unnatural and created by convention, and is therefore forced, and unjust [Aristotle]
The virtues of a good citizen are relative to a particular constitution [Aristotle]
We all feel universal right and wrong, independent of any community or contracts [Aristotle]
Stoics say justice is a part of nature, not just an invented principle [Chrysippus ,by Diog. Laertius]
Trouble in life comes from copying other people, which is following convention instead of reason [Seneca]
Being manly and brave is the result of convention, not of human nature [Plutarch]
Self-preservation is basic, and people judge differently about that, implying ethical relativism [Hobbes ,by Tuck]
Men's natural desires are no sin, and neither are their actions, until law makes it so [Hobbes]
It is a funny sort of justice whose limits are marked by a river [Pascal]
True goodness is political, and consists of love of and submission to the laws [Montesquieu]
We must only value what others find acceptable [Kant ,by Korsgaard]
The human essence is not found in individuals but in social relations [Marx]
That which is done out of love always takes place beyond good and evil [Nietzsche]
Actions norms are only valid if everyone possibly affected is involved in the discourse [Habermas]
Sophists don't distinguish a person outside one social order from someone outside all order [MacIntyre]
Relativists say all values are relative; pluralists concede much of that, but not 'human' values [Kekes]