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22. Metaethics / B. Basis of Ethics / 2. Moral Theory

[general comments on the theoretical side of morality]

18 ideas
What knowledge is required to live well? [Plato]
We aim not to identify goodness, but to be good [Aristotle]
We must take for granted that we should act according to right principle [Aristotle]
There is no fixed art of good conduct, and each situation is different, as in navigation [Aristotle]
There couldn't be a moral rule of which a man could not justly demand a reason [Locke]
Moral feelings are entirely different from the moral concepts used to judge actions [Nietzsche]
Moral theories are all meta-ethical, and are neutral as regards actual conduct [Ayer]
Philosophers study the consequences of ethics instead of its origins [Wilson,EO]
Kant and Mill both try to explain right and wrong, without a divine lawgiver [Taylor,R]
Philosophers try to produce ethical theories because they falsely assume that ethics can be simple [Williams,B]
Moral functionalism says moral terms get their meaning from their role in folk morality [Jackson]
Which are prior - thin concepts like right, good, ought; or thick concepts like kindness, equity etc.? [Jackson]
Unlike expressions of personal preference, evaluative expressions do not depend on context [MacIntyre]
Some philosophers always want more from morality; for others, nature is enough [Blackburn]
Ethics is the science of the conditions that lead to human flourishing [Flanagan]
Cognitivists think morals are discovered by reason [Flanagan]
Modern moral theory concerns settling conflicts, rather than human fulfilment [Zagzebski]
There is a new sort of moral scepticism, about the possibility of moral theories [Statman]