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10. Modality / B. Possibility / 5. Contingency

[facts which could be otherwise]

10 ideas
'Contingent' means that the cause is unperceived, not that there is no cause [Hobbes]
Contingency is an illusion, resulting from our inadequate understanding [Spinoza, by Cottingham]
We only call things 'contingent' in relation to the imperfection of our knowledge [Spinoza]
Reason naturally regards things as necessary, and only imagination considers them contingent [Spinoza]
Necessary truths can be analysed into original truths; contingent truths are infinitely analysable [Leibniz]
A reason must be given why contingent beings should exist rather than not exist [Leibniz]
Contingency arises from tensed verbs changing the propositions to which they refer [Russell]
The necessary/contingent distinction may need to recognise possibilities as real [Armstrong]
'Superficial' contingency: false in some world; 'Deep' contingency: no obvious verification [Evans, by MaciÓ/Garcia-Carpentiro]
Possible non-being which must be realised is 'precariousness'; absolute contingency might never not-be [Meillassoux]