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12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 5. Empiricism Critique

[rejection of knowledge arising just from experience]

35 ideas
The senses are too feeble to determine the truth [Anaxagoras]
Animals may have some knowledge if they retain perception, but understanding requires reasons to be given [Aristotle]
Knowledge may be based on senses, but we needn't sense all our knowledge [Aquinas]
Senses cannot judge one another, so what judges senses cannot be a sense, but must be superior [Cudworth]
It is unclear how identity, equality, perfection, God, power and cause derive from experience [Locke, by Dancy,J]
Knowledge doesn't just come from the senses; we know the self, substance, identity, being etc. [Leibniz]
Our sensation of green is a confused idea, like objects blurred by movement [Leibniz]
Hume mistakenly lumps sensations and perceptions together as 'impressions' [Scruton on Hume]
Even Hume didn't include mathematics in his empiricism [Hume, by Kant]
Understanding has no intuitions, and senses no thought, so knowledge needs their unity [Kant]
Sensations are a posteriori, but that they come in degrees is known a priori [Kant]
Many people imagine that to experience is to understand [Goethe]
Empiricists are passive thinkers, given their philosophy by the external world and fate [Novalis]
Empiricism unknowingly contains and uses a metaphysic, which underlies its categories [Hegel]
Empiricism of the finite denies the supersensible, and can only think with formal abstraction [Hegel]
The Humean view stops us thinking about perception, and finding universals and necessities in it [Hegel]
The world is one of experience, but experiences are always located among our ideas [Peirce]
We can have two opposite sensations, like hard and soft, at the same time [Nietzsche]
It is hard to explain how a sentence like 'it is not raining' can be found true by observation [Russell]
Perception can't prove universal generalisations, so abandon them, or abandon empiricism? [Russell]
Full empiricism is not tenable, but empirical investigation is always essential [Russell]
Empiricists seem unclear what they mean by 'experience' [Russell]
I can know the existence of something with which nobody is acquainted [Russell]
Empiricism, it is said, cannot account for our knowledge of necessary truths [Ayer]
The second dogma is linking every statement to some determinate observations [Quine, by Yablo]
Empirical and a priori knowledge are not distinct, but are extremes of a sliding scale [Dummett]
Davidson says the world influences us causally; I say it influences us rationally [McDowell on Davidson]
Without the dualism of scheme and content, not much is left of empiricism [Davidson]
Experience cannot teach us why maths and logic are necessary [Katz]
To find empiricism and science in the same culture is surprising, as they are really incompatible [MacIntyre]
Most of our knowledge has insufficient sensory support [Sosa]
Rationalists say there is more to a concept than the experience that prompts it [Fodor]
Necessity and possibility are big threats to the empiricist view of knowledge [McGinn]
Extreme empiricists can hardly explain anything [Swoyer]
The doctrine of empiricism does not itself seem to be empirically justified [Ladyman/Ross]