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8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 4. Concept Nominalism

[universals are mental concepts]

6 ideas
Abstracta are abbreviated ways of talking; there are just substances, and truths about them. [Leibniz]
If we consider whiteness to be merely a mental 'idea', we rob it of its universality [Russell]
Understanding 'is square' is knowing when to apply it, not knowing some object [Quine]
'Concept Nominalism' says a 'universal' property is just a mental concept applied to lots of things [Armstrong]
Concept and predicate nominalism miss out some predicates, and may be viciously regressive [Armstrong]
Conceptualism says words like 'honesty' refer to concepts, not to properties [Swoyer]