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28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Proofs of Reason / b. Ontological Proof critique

[objections to the conceptual proof of God's existence]

36 ideas
Properties must be proved, but not essence; but existents are not a kind, so existence isn't part of essence [Aristotle]
'Being' and 'oneness' are predicated of everything which exists [Aristotle]
Many primitive people know nothing of the gods [Cicero]
The existence of God can't be self-evident or everyone would have agreed on it, so it needs demonstration [Sext.Empiricus]
Anselm's first proof fails because existence isn't a real predicate, so it can't be a perfection [Malcolm on Anselm]
We can't know God's essence, so his existence can't be self-evident for us [Aquinas]
It is heresy to teach that we can know God by his essence in this mortal life [Anon (Par)]
We mustn't worship God as an image because we have no idea of him [Hobbes on Descartes]
We can never conceive of an infinite being [Gassendi on Descartes]
Existence is not a perfection; it is what makes perfection possible [Gassendi on Descartes]
Descartes cannot assume that a most perfect being exists without contradictions [Leibniz on Descartes]
If a thing can be conceived as non-existing, its essence does not involve existence [Spinoza]
It can never be a logical contradiction to assert the non-existence of something thought to exist [Hume]
No being's non-existence can imply a contradiction, so its existence cannot be proved a priori [Hume]
Existence is merely derived from the word 'is' (rather than being a predicate) [Kant, by Orenstein]
Modern logic says (with Kant) that existence is not a predicate, because it has been reclassified as a quantifier [Benardete,JA on Kant]
Kant never denied that 'exist' could be a predicate - only that it didn't enlarge concepts [Kant, by Fitting/Mendelsohn]
Is "This thing exists" analytic or synthetic? [Kant]
If 'this exists' is analytic, either the thing is a thought, or you have presupposed its existence [Kant]
If an existential proposition is synthetic, you must be able to cancel its predicate without contradiction [Kant]
Being is not a real predicate, that adds something to a concept [Kant]
You add nothing to the concept of God or coins if you say they exist [Kant]
The predicate 'exists' is actually a natural language expression for a quantifier [Frege, by Weiner]
The Ontological Argument fallaciously treats existence as a first-level concept [Frege]
Existence is not a first-level concept (of God), but a second-level property of concepts [Frege, by Potter]
Because existence is a property of concepts the ontological argument for God fails [Frege]
The supreme general but empty concepts must be compatible, and hence we get 'God' [Nietzsche]
The ontological argument begins with an unproven claim that 'there exists an x..' [Russell]
You can discuss 'God exists', so 'God' is a description, not a name [Russell]
When we ascribe an attribute to a thing, we covertly assert that it exists [Ayer]
There is no reason to think that mere existence is a valuable thing [Inwagen]
If Satan is the most imperfect conceivable being, he must have non-existence [McGinn]
I think the fault of the Ontological Argument is taking the original idea to be well-defined [McGinn]
'Existence' is not a predicate of 'man', but of the concept of man, saying it has at least one instance [Scruton]
A thing can't be the only necessary existent, because its singleton set would be as well [Williamson]
God can't have silly perfections, but how do we decide which ones are 'silly'? [Joslin]