The 225 new ideas included in the latest update (of 17th August), by Theme

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1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 1. Nature of Wisdom
Seeking wisdom beyond our different perspectives is decadent and anti-life [Nietzsche]
1. Philosophy / A. Wisdom / 2. Wise People
Don't use wisdom in order to become clever! [Nietzsche]
The wisest man is full of contradictions, and attuned to other people, with occasional harmony [Nietzsche]
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 2. Ancient Philosophy / b. Pre-Socratic philosophy
Philosophy really got started as the rival mode of discourse to tragedy [Critchley]
1. Philosophy / C. History of Philosophy / 4. Later European Philosophy / d. Nineteenth century philosophy
Early 19th century German philosophers enjoyed concepts, rather than scientific explanations [Nietzsche]
Carlyle spent his life vainly trying to make reason appear romantic [Nietzsche]
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 1. Philosophy
If philosophy could be summarised it would be pointless [Adorno]
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 4. Aims of Philosophy / d. Philosophy as puzzles
Philosophy begins in disappointment, notably in religion and politics [Critchley]
1. Philosophy / D. Nature of Philosophy / 6. Despair over Philosophy
What we think is totally dictated by the language available to express it [Nietzsche]
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 1. Nature of Metaphysics
Metaphysics aims at the essence of things, and a system to show how this explains other truths [Richardson]
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 2. Possibility of Metaphysics
Metaphysics needs systems, because analysis just obsesses over details [Richardson]
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 3. Metaphysics as Science
Metaphysics generalises the data, to get at the ontology [Richardson]
1. Philosophy / E. Nature of Metaphysics / 5. Metaphysics as Conceptual
Nietzsche has a metaphysics, as well as perspectives - the ontology is the perspectives [Nietzsche ,by Richardson]
1. Philosophy / F. Analytic Philosophy / 3. Necessary/Sufficient Conditions
'Necessary' conditions are requirements, and 'sufficient' conditions are guarantees [Davies,S]
1. Philosophy / G. Scientific Philosophy / 3. Scientism
Science gives us an excessively theoretical view of life [Critchley]
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 2. Phenomenology
Phenomenology uncovers and redescribes the pre-theoretical layer of life [Critchley]
2. Reason / A. Nature of Reason / 7. Status of Reason
Reason is just another organic drive, developing late, and fighting for equality [Nietzsche]
2. Reason / D. Definition / 1. Definitions
A definition of a thing gives all the requirements which add up to a guarantee of it [Davies,S]
2. Reason / D. Definition / 12. Against Definition
Feminists warn that ideologies use timeless objective definitions as a tool of repression [Davies,S]
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 3. Value of Truth
Why should truth be omnipotent? It is enough that it is very powerful [Nietzsche]
Truth was given value by morality, but eventually turned against its own source [Nietzsche]
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 4. Uses of Truth
Truth is what unites, and the profound truths create a community [Jaspers]
3. Truth / A. Truth Problems / 8. Subjective Truth
The highest truth we can get is uncertainty held fast by an inward passion [Kierkegaard]
5. Theory of Logic / B. Logical Consequence / 5. Modus Ponens
If our ideas are adequate, what follows from them is also adequate [Spinoza]
5. Theory of Logic / C. Ontology of Logic / 4. Logic by Convention
Logic needs general conventions, but that needs logic to apply them to individual cases [Quine ,by Rey]
5. Theory of Logic / L. Paradox / 4. Paradoxes in Logic / a. Achilles paradox
Zeno assumes collecting an infinity of things makes an infinite thing [Rovelli]
6. Mathematics / A. Nature of Mathematics / 3. Numbers / o. Units
We need 'unities' for reckoning, but that does not mean they exist [Nietzsche]
7. Existence / A. Nature of Existence / 3. Being / c. Becoming
The apprehensions of reason remain unchanging, but reasonless sensation shows mere becoming [Plato]
We Germans value becoming and development more highly than mere being of what 'is' [Nietzsche]
The nature of being, of things, is much easier to understand than is becoming [Nietzsche]
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 2. Processes
Quantum mechanics deals with processes, rather than with things [Rovelli]
7. Existence / B. Change in Existence / 4. Events / b. Events as primitive
Quantum mechanics describes the world entirely as events [Rovelli]
8. Modes of Existence / E. Nominalism / 5. Class Nominalism
Classes rarely share properties with their members - unlike universals and types [Wollheim]
9. Objects / B. Unity of Objects / 1. Unifying an Object / c. Unity as conceptual
We saw unity in things because our ego seemed unified (but now we doubt the ego!) [Nietzsche]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 3. Individual Essences
We begin with concepts of kinds, from individuals; but that is not the essence of individuals [Nietzsche]
10. Modality / D. Knowledge of Modality / 4. Conceivable as Possible / a. Conceivable as possible
Error does not result from imagining, but from lacking the evidence of impossibility [Spinoza]
11. Knowledge Aims / A. Knowledge / 3. Value of Knowledge
Most people treat knowledge as a private possession [Nietzsche]
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 1. Nature of the A Priori
The traditional a priori is justified without experience; post-Quine it became unrevisable by experience [Rey]
12. Knowledge Sources / C. Rationalism / 1. Rationalism
The desire for a complete system requires making the weak parts look equal to the rest [Nietzsche]
12. Knowledge Sources / D. Empiricism / 2. Associationism
Once we have experience two feelings together, one will always give rise to the other [Spinoza]
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 3. Memory
We may be unable to remember, but we may never actually forget [Nietzsche]
13. Knowledge Criteria / B. Internal Justification / 5. Coherentism / b. Pro-coherentism
Encounters with things confuse the mind, and internal comparisons bring clarity [Spinoza]
14. Science / B. Scientific Theories / 1. Scientific Theory
There is no one scientific method; we must try many approaches, and many emotions [Nietzsche]
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 3. Abstraction by mind
Leaves are unequal, but we form the concept 'leaf' by discarding their individual differences [Nietzsche]
15. Nature of Minds / C. Capacities of Minds / 4. Objectification
We often treat a type as if it were a sort of token [Wollheim]
16. Persons / A. Concept of a Person / 1. Existence of Persons
There are no 'individual' persons; we are each the sum of humanity up to this moment [Nietzsche]
16. Persons / B. Concept of the Self / 1. Essential Self
The ranking of a person's innermost drives reveals their true nature [Nietzsche]
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 2. Self-Knowledge
Just as skin hides the horrors of the body, vanity conceals the passions of the soul [Nietzsche]
Most of us are too close to our own motives to understand them [Fry]
16. Persons / C. Self-Awareness / 3. Undetectable Self
Our knowledge of the many drives that constitute us is hopelessly incomplete [Nietzsche]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 1. Free Will / a. Nature of free will
Freedom needs knowledge, the possibility of arbitrariness, and law [Jaspers]
16. Persons / F. Free Will / 1. Free Will / b. Pro-free will
I am aware that freedom is possible, and the freedom is not in theory, but in seeking freedom [Jaspers]
17. Mind and Body / A. Mind-Body Dualism / 6. Epiphenomenalism
Consciousness is a terminal phenomenon, and causes nothing [Nietzsche]
18. Thought / B. Mechanics of Thought / 1. Psychology
It is psychology which reveals the basic problems [Nietzsche]
18. Thought / C. Content / 2. Ideas
An idea involves affirmation or negation [Spinoza]
19. Language / A. Nature of Meaning / 8. Synonymy
Externalist synonymy is there being a correct link to the same external phenomena [Rey]
19. Language / E. Analyticity / 1. Analytic Propositions
If the predicate is contained in the subject of a judgement, it is analytic; otherwise synthetic [Kant]
Analytic judgements clarify, by analysing the subject into its component predicates [Kant]
Analytic judgements can't be explained by contradiction, since that is what is assumed [Rey]
'Married' does not 'contain' its symmetry, nor 'bigger than' its transitivity [Rey]
Analytic statements are undeniable (because of meaning), rather than unrevisable [Rey]
The meaning properties of a term are those which explain how the term is typically used [Rey]
An intrinsic language faculty may fix what is meaningful (as well as grammatical) [Rey]
Research throws doubts on the claimed intuitions which support analyticity [Rey]
19. Language / E. Analyticity / 2. Analytic Truths
All analytic truths can become logical truths, by substituting definitions or synonyms [Frege ,by Rey]
19. Language / E. Analyticity / 4. Analytic/Synthetic Critique
If we claim direct insight to what is analytic, how do we know it is not sub-consciously empirical? [Rey]
19. Language / F. Communication / 1. Rhetoric
It is essential that wise people learn to express their wisdom, possibly even as foolishness [Nietzsche]
20. Action / B. Preliminaries of Action / 2. Willed Action / b. Volitionism
The cause of my action is in my will [Shakespeare]
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 1. Acting on Desires
Whenever we act, then desire is our very essence [Spinoza]
20. Action / C. Motives for Action / 4. Responsibility for Actions
Actions done for a purpose are least understood, because we complacently think it's obvious [Nietzsche]
My freedom increases as I broaden my vision of possiblities and motives [Jaspers]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 1. Aesthetics
Modern attention has moved from the intrinsic properties of art to its relational properties [Lamarque/Olson]
By 1790 aestheticians were mainly trying to explain individual artistic genius [Kemp]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 2. Aesthetic Attitude
Imaginative life requires no action, so new kinds of perception and values emerge in art [Fry]
Everyone reveals an aesthetic attitude, looking at something which only exists to be seen [Fry]
The aesthetic attitude is a matter of disinterestedness [Wollheim ,by Kant]
A love of nature must precede a love of art [Wollheim]
The aesthetic attitude is nothing more than paying close attention [Dickie ,by Giovannelli]
Aesthetic experience involves perceptual, but also imagination and understanding [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 3. Beauty
Beauty is only judged in pure contemplation, and not with something else at stake [Kant]
Beauty in art is the imitation of happiness [Nietzsche]
'Beauty' can either mean sensuous charm, or the aesthetic approval of art (which may be ugly) [Fry]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 5. The Sublime
In life we neglect 'cosmic emotion', but it matters, and art brings it to the fore [Fry]
The sublime is negative in awareness of insignificance, and positive in showing understanding [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 6. Taste
With respect to the senses, taste is an entirely personal matter [Kant]
When we judge beauty, it isn't just personal; we judge on behalf of everybody [Kant]
Saying everyone has their own taste destroys the very idea of taste [Kant]
Taste is the capacity to judge an object or representation which is thought to be beautiful [Kant]
The faculty of 'taste' was posited to explain why only some people had aesthetic appreciation [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 1. Defining Art
Art needs a mixture of order and variety in its sensations [Fry]
'Form' is visual relations, and it is 'significant' if it moves us aesthetically; art needs both [Bell,C ,by Feagin]
Art is a referential activity, hence indefinable, but it has a set of symptoms [Goodman]
A criterion of identity for works of art would be easier than a definition [Wollheim]
Early 20th cent attempts at defining art focused on significant form, intuition, expression, unity [Lamarque/Olson]
The idea that art forms are linked into a single concept began in the 1740s [Davies,S]
Defining art as representation or expression or fom were all undermined by the avant-garde [Davies,S]
'Aesthetic functionalism' says art is what is intended to create aesthetic experiences [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 2. Ontology of Art
Art exists ideally, purely as experiences in the mind of the perceiver [Collingwood ,by Kemp]
If artworks are not physical objects, they are either ideal entities, or collections of phenomena [Wollheim]
The ideal theory says art is an intuition, shaped by a particular process, and presented in public [Wollheim]
The ideal theory of art neglects both the audience and the medium employed [Wollheim]
A musical performance has virtually the same features as the piece of music [Wollheim]
If paintings could be perfectly duplicated, it would be a multiple art form [Currie ,by Bacharach]
The dualistic view says works of art are either abstract objects (types), or physical objects [Lamarque/Olson]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 3. Art as Form
If beauty needs organisation, then totally simple things can't be beautiful [Wollheim]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 4. Art as Imitation
If graphic arts only aim at imitation, their works are only trivial ingenious toys [Fry]
Popular opinion favours realism, yet most people never look closely at anything! [Fry]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 5. Art as Expression
The experience of expression and communication are intermingled in art [Croce]
The emotion expressed is non-conscious, but feels oppressive until expression relieves it [Collingwood]
Some say art must have verbalisable expression, and others say the opposite! [Wollheim]
It is claimed that the expressive properties of artworks are non-physical [Wollheim]
The horror expressed in some work of art could equallly be expressed by other means [Kemp]
Expression can be either necessary for art, or sufficient for art (or even both) [Kemp]
We don't already know what to express, and then seek means of expressing [Kemp]
Music may be expressive by being 'associated' with other emotional words or events [Davies,S]
It seems unlikely that sad music expresses a composer's sadness; it takes ages to write [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 6. Art as Language
Artistic symbols are judged by the fruitfulness of their classifications [Goodman ,by Giovannelli]
A performance is only an instance of a work if there is not a single error [Goodman]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 7. Art as Institution
For Hegel the importance of art concerns the culture, not the individual [Hegel ,by Eldridge]
A thing is only seen as art in an 'artworld', which has a theory and a history [Danto]
We see something as art if there is a world of theory and history to support it [Danto]
An ordinary object can be a work of art, but only if some theory of art supports it [Danto]
A work of art is an artifact created for the artworld [Dickie]
The 'institutional' theory says art is just something appropriately placed in the 'artworld' [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / a. Music
Music is too definite to be put into words (not too indefinite!) [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / B. Nature of Art / 8. The Arts / b. Poetry
Wallace Stevens is the greatest philosophical poet of the twentieth century in English [Critchley]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 1. Artistic Intentions
When viewing art, rather than flowers, we are aware of purpose, and sympathy with its creator [Fry]
Intentions either succeed or fail, so external evidence for them is always irrelevant [Wimsatt/Beardsley ,by Davies,S]
The title of a painting can be vital, and the artist decrees who the portrait represents [Davies,S]
We must know what the work is meant to be, to evaluate the artist's achievement [Davies,S]
Intentionalism says either meaning just is intention, or ('moderate') meaning is successful intention [Davies,S]
The meaning is given by the audience's best guess at the author's intentions [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 2. Artistic Representation
A drawing only represents Napoleon if the artist intended it to [Wollheim]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 3. Emotion in Art
Music is not an expressive art, because it expresses no familiar emotions [Hanslick ,by Wollheim]
In the cinema the emotions are weaker, but much clearer than in ordinary life [Fry]
Music isn't just sad because it makes the listener feel sad [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 4. Interpretation of Art
Interpretation is performance for some arts, and critical for all arts [Wollheim]
An interpretation adds further properties to the generic piece of music [Wollheim]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 5. Objectivism in Art
The judgement of beauty is not cognitive, but relates, via imagination, to pleasurable feelings [Kant]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 6. Value of Art
The purpose of art is to reveal to Spirit its own nature [Hegel ,by Davies,S]
Art forms a bridge between the sensuous world and the world of pure thought [Hegel]
Art clarifies the artist's mind and feelings, thus leading to self-knowledge [Collingwood ,by Davies,S]
Art leads to mental health, and mental clarity [Beardsley,M ,by Carroll,N]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 7. Copies of Art
A copy only becomes an 'instance' of an artwork if there is a system of notation [Goodman]
If we could perfectly clone the Mona Lisa, the original would still be special [Davies,S]
Art that is multiply instanced my require at least one instance [Davies,S]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 8. Context of Art
The traditional view is the knowledge of its genre to essential to appreciating literature [Wollheim]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 9. Style in Art
Style can't be seen directly within a work, but appreciation needs a grasp of style [Wollheim]
21. Aesthetics / C. Artistic Issues / 10. Art and Morality
For pure moralists art must promote right action, and not just be harmless [Fry]
Interesting art is always organised around ethical demands [Critchley]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 1. Nature of Value / e. Subjective value
All evaluation is from some perspective, and aims at survival [Nietzsche]
The ruling drives of our culture all want to be the highest court of our values [Nietzsche]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / a. Valuing life
The sanctity of a human life depends either on being of our species, or on being a person [Singer]
22. Metaethics / A. Value / 2. Values / c. Love
Marriage is too serious to be permitted for people in love! [Nietzsche]
Fear reveals the natures of other people much more clearly than love does [Nietzsche]
22. Metaethics / B. The Good / 1. Goodness / h. Good as benefit
'Marginal utility' says something is more useful if it is in short supply [Singer]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / b. Defining ethics
Ethics is universalisable - it must involve an impartial and universal view of things [Singer]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 1. Nature of Ethics / d. Ethical theory
The problems is not justifying ethics, but motivating it. Why should a self seek its good? [Critchley]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / c. Ethical intuitionism
Following an inner voice for morality is irresponsible in a rational agent [Singer]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / f. ‹bermensch
The highest man can endure and control the greatest combination of powerful drives [Nietzsche]
The highest man directs the values of the highest natures over millenia [Nietzsche]
22. Metaethics / C. Ethics Foundations / 2. Source of Ethics / g. Will to power
As far as possible, everything tries to persevere [Spinoza]
The 'will to power' is basically applied to drives and forces, not to people [Nietzsche ,by Richardson]
23. Ethics / A. Egoism / 1. Ethical Egoism
People do nothing for their real ego, but only for a phantom ego created by other people [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 1. Contractarianism
Why should I do anything for posterity? What has posterity ever done for me? [Singer]
23. Ethics / B. Contract Ethics / 2. Golden Rule
If you feel to others as they feel to themselves, you must hate a self-hater [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 1. Virtue Theory / d. Virtue theory critique
Virtues must be highly personal; if not, it is merely respect for a concept [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 2. Elements of Virtue Theory / f. The Mean
The instinct of the herd, the majority, aims for the mean, in the middle [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / a. Virtues
Honesty is a new young virtue, and we can promote it, or not [Nietzsche]
The cardinal virtues want us to be honest, brave, magnanimous and polite [Nietzsche]
The four virtues are courage, insight, sympathy, solitude [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / C. Virtue Theory / 3. Virtues / d. Courage
Cool courage and feverish bravery have one name, but are two very different virtues [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 1. Deontology
Conflict of rules might be avoided by greater complexity, or by a hierarchy of rules [Singer]
23. Ethics / D. Deontological Ethics / 2. Duty
See duty as a burden makes it a bit cruel, and it can thus never become a habit [Nietzsche]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 1. Existentialism
My helplessness in philosophising reveals my being, and begins its upsurge [Jaspers]
The struggle for Existenz is between people who are equals, and are utterly honest [Jaspers]
Once we grasp freedom 'from' things, then freedom 'for' things becomes urgent [Jaspers]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 4. Boredom
Pychopaths may just be bored, because they cannot participate in normal emotional life [Singer]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 6. Authentic Self
People want to lose themselves in movements and history, instead of being individuals [Kierkegaard]
Most people think they are already complete, but we can cultivate ourselves [Nietzsche]
Mundane existence is general, falling under universals, but Existens is unique to individuals [Jaspers]
We want the correct grasp on being that is neither solipsism nor absorption in the crowd [Jaspers]
'Existenz' is the potential being, which I could have, and ought to have [Jaspers]
Heidegger says must either choose an inauthentic hero, or choose yourself as hero [Heidegger ,by Critchley]
23. Ethics / F. Existentialism / 7. Existential Action
Every decision I make moves towards or away from fulfilled Existenz [Jaspers]
24. Applied Ethics / B. Moral Rights / 3. Animal Rights
Large mature animals are more rational than babies. But all that really matters is - can they suffer? [Bentham]
Killing a chimp is worse than killing a human too defective to be a person [Singer]
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 1. Death
Most dying people have probably lost more important things than what they are about to lose [Nietzsche]
24. Applied Ethics / C. Death Issues / 3. Abortion
Why should a potential person have the rights of an actual person? [Singer]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / a. Human distinctiveness
Humans dominate because, unlike other animals, they have a synthesis of conflicting drives [Richardson]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
Hegel's Absolute Spirit is the union of human rational activity at a moment, and whatever that sustains [Hegel ,by Eldridge]
25. Society / B. The State / 1. Purpose of a State
Individual development is more important than the states, but a community is necessary [Nietzsche]
25. Society / B. The State / 4. Citizenship
Nietzsche thinks we should joing a society, in order to criticise, heal and renew it [Nietzsche ,by Richardson]
25. Society / B. The State / 5. Leaders / d. Elites
A healthy aristocracy has no qualms about using multitudes of men as instruments [Nietzsche]
25. Society / B. The State / 6. Government / a. Government
People govern for the pleasure of it, or just to avoid being governed [Nietzsche]
25. Society / B. The State / 7. Changing the State / c. Revolution
The French Revolution gave trusting Europe the false delusion of instant recovery [Nietzsche]
You can't condemn violent revolution without assessing the evils it prevents [Singer]
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 3. Anarchism
The state, law, bureaucracy and capital are limitations on life, so I prefer federalist anarchism [Critchley]
Anarchism used to be libertarian (especially for sexuality), but now concerns responsibility [Critchley]
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 4. Conservatism
Belief that humans are wicked leads to authoritarian politics [Critchley]
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
If 49% of the population can be wrong, so can 51% [Singer]
25. Society / C. Political Doctrines / 9. Communism
Levinas says Marxism is the replacement of individualist ethics, by solidarity and sociality [Critchley]
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 1. Legal Rights / a. Basis of rights
If a right entails having the relevant desire, many creatures might have no right to life [Singer]
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / a. Grounds of equality
Equality of interests is a minimal principle, not implying equal treatment [Singer]
25. Society / D. Social Rights / 3. Social Equality / d. Economic equality
Equality of opportunity unfairly rewards those lucky enough to have great ability [Singer]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / a. Education principles
Teach youth to respect people who differ with them, not people who agree with them [Nietzsche]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 5. Education / d. History study
History does not concern what really happened, but supposed events, which have all the influence [Nietzsche]
25. Society / E. State Functions / 6. War
Modern wars arise from the study of history [Nietzsche]
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 1. Basis of Nature
Nature has three aspects: granularity, indeterminacy, and relations [Rovelli]
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 2. The Unlimited
The basic ideas of fields and particles are merged in quantum mechanics [Rovelli]
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 3. Space / c. Substantival space
The world is just particles plus fields; space is the gravitational field [Rovelli]
26. Natural Theory / B. Concepts of Nature / 4. Time / i. Time and change
Only heat distinguishes past from future [Rovelli]
26. Natural Theory / C. Causation / 1. Causation / g. Eliminating causation
A mind that could see cause and effect as a continuum would deny cause and effect [Richardson]
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / j. Electrons
Electrons only exist when they interact, and their being is their combination of quantum leaps [Rovelli]
Electrons are not waves, because their collisions are at a point, and not spread out [Rovelli]
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / k. Fields
Because it is quantised, a field behaves like a set of packets of energy [Rovelli]
There are about fifteen particles fields, plus a few force fields [Rovelli]
The world consists of quantum fields, with elementary events happening in spacetime [Rovelli]
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 1. Matter / l. Quantum theory
Quantum Theory describes events and possible interactions - not how things are [Rovelli]
27. Natural Reality / A. Physics / 2. Movement
We only see points in motion, and thereby infer movement [Rescher]
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 3. Infinite in Nature
There are probably no infinities, and 'infinite' names what we do not yet know [Rovelli]
28. God / B. Proving God / 2. Fideism
'I believe because it is absurd' - but how about 'I believe because I am absurd' [Nietzsche]
28. God / D. Proofs of Evidence / 4. Religious Experience
God cannot be demonstrated objectively, because God is a subject, only existing inwardly [Kierkegaard]
29. Religion / C. Monotheistic Religion / 3. Christianity / a. Christianity
Christianity hoped for a short cut to perfection, that skipped the hard labour of morality [Nietzsche]
Christianity was successful because of its heathen rituals [Nietzsche]
29. Religion / E. Immortality / 2. Soul
The easy and graceful aspects of a person are called 'soul', and inner awkwardness is called 'soulless' [Nietzsche]