The 123 new ideas included in the latest update (of 19th June), by Theme

idea number gives full details    |     expand these ideas
1. Philosophy / H. Continental Philosophy / 2. Phenomenology
Phenomenology needs absolute reflection, without presuppositions [Husserl]
5. Theory of Logic / C. Ontology of Logic / 1. Ontology of Logic
Logicians presuppose a world, and ignore logic/world connections, so their logic is impure [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
Phenomenology grounds logic in subjective experience [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
6. Mathematics / B. Foundations for Mathematics / 1. Foundations for Mathematics
Pure mathematics is the relations between all possible objects, and is thus formal ontology [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
7. Existence / C. Structure of Existence / 6. Fundamentals / c. Monads
Husserl sees the ego as a monad, unifying presence, sense and intentional acts [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
9. Objects / D. Essence of Objects / 5. Essence as Kind
The sense of anything contingent has a purely apprehensible essence or Eidos [Husserl]
11. Knowledge Aims / B. Certain Knowledge / 5. The Cogito
The physical given, unlike the mental given, could be non-existing [Husserl]
11. Knowledge Aims / C. Knowing Reality / 4. Solipsism
The Cogito demands a bridge to the world, and ends in isolating the ego [Velarde-Mayol]
12. Knowledge Sources / A. A Priori Knowledge / 2. Self-Evidence
Husserl says we have intellectual intuitions (of categories), as well as of the senses [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
12. Knowledge Sources / B. Perception / 3. Representation
The representation may not be a likeness [Velarde-Mayol]
12. Knowledge Sources / E. Direct Knowledge / 1. Intuition
Direct 'seeing' by consciousness is the ultimate rational legitimation [Husserl]
15. Nature of Minds / A. Nature of Mind / 4. Other Minds / c. Knowing other minds
Husserl's monads (egos) communicate, through acts of empathy. [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
16. Persons / B. Nature of the Self / 4. Presupposition of Self
The psychological ego is worldly, and the pure ego follow transcendental reduction [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
18. Thought / D. Concepts / 4. Structure of Concepts / b. Analysis of concepts
We clarify concepts (e.g. numbers) by determining their psychological origin [Husserl, by Velarde-Mayol]
21. Aesthetics / A. Aesthetic Experience / 4. Beauty
The beautiful is whatever it is intrinsically good to admire [Moore,GE]
24. Applied Ethics / A. Decision Conflicts / 5. Omissions
Utilitarians conflate acts and omissions; causing to drown and failing to save are the same [Shorten]
25. Society / A. State of Nature / 1. A People / c. A unified people
Rawls rejected cosmopolitanism because it doesn't respect the autonomy of 'peoples' [Rawls, by Shorten]
25. Society / B. The State / 2. State Legitimacy / d. Social contract
Power is only legitimate if it is reasonable for free equal citizens to endorse the constitution [Rawls]
25. Society / B. The State / 8. Religion in Society
Religious toleration has been institutionalised by the separation of church and state [Shorten]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 1. Social Justice
If everyone is treated with equal injustice, at least that is fair [Morganbesser]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 2. Social Freedom / g. Social power
Domination is probable obedience by some group of persons [Weber]
Supreme power is getting people to have thoughts and desires chosen by you [Steven Lukes]
There are eight different ways in which groups of people can be oppressed [Shorten, by PG]
25. Society / C. Social Justice / 5. Right to Punish / d. Reform of offenders
Power is used to create identities and ways of life for other people [Foucault, by Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 1. Political Theory
Constitutional Patriotism unites around political values (rather than national identity) [Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / a. Nature of democracy
Democracy is competition for support of the people, guided by self-interest on all sides [Posner]
Democracy is a method of selection, or it involves participation, or it concerns public discussion [Shorten]
Some say democracy is intrinsically valuable, others that it delivers good outcomes [Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 5. Democracy / d. Representative democracy
Representative should be either obedient, or sensible, or typical [Shorten]
There is 'mirror representation' when the institution statistically reflects the population [Shorten]
In a changed situation a Mandated Representative can't keep promises and fight for constituents [Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 6. Liberalism
The self is 'unencumbered' if it can abandon its roles and commitments without losing identity [Sandel, by Shorten]
Liberalism should not make assumptions such as the value of choosing your own life plan [Shorten]
Liberal equality concerns rights, and liberal freedom concerns choice of ends [Shorten]
Liberal citizens have a moral requirement to respect freedom and equality [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism encourages the promotion of nationalistic values [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism says welfare states and democracy needed a shared sense of nationality [Shorten]
Liberal Nationalism is more communitarian, and Constitutional Patriotism more cosmopolitan [Shorten]
Maybe the rational autonomous liberal individual is merely the result of domination [Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 7. Communitarianism
Liberals treat individuals as mutual strangers, rather than as social beings [Shorten]
25. Society / D. Political Doctrines / 13. Feminism
Liberals must respect family freedom - but families are the great oppressors of women [Nussbaum]
26. Natural Theory / D. Laws of Nature / 8. Scientific Essentialism / d. Knowing essences
Find the essence by varying an object, so see what remains invariable [Velarde-Mayol]
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / c. Forces
The strong force has a considerably greater range than the weak force [Martin,BR]
Relativity and Quantum theory give very different accounts of forces [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 1. Mechanics / d. Gravity
Instead of gravitational force, we now have a pervasive gravitational field [Farmelo]
Gravity is unusual, in that it always attracts and never repels [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 2. Thermodynamics / a. Energy
Thermodynamics introduced work and entropy, to understand steam engine efficiency [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / A. Classical Physics / 2. Thermodynamics / c. Conservation of energy
If an expected reaction does not occur, that implies a conservation law [Martin,BR]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 1. Relativity / a. Special relativity
Assume the speed of light is constant for all observers, and the laws of physics are the same [Farmelo]
The theory is 'special' because it sticks to observers moving straight, at constant speeds [Farmelo]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 1. Relativity / b. General relativity
In the Big Band general relativity fails, because gravity is too powerful [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 2. Electrodynamics / a. Electrodynamics
Electron emit and reabsorb photons, which create and reabsorb virtual electrons and positrons [Martin,BR]
Quantum electrodynamics incorporates special relativity and quantum mechanics [New Sci.]
Photons have zero rest mass, so virtual photons have infinite range [New Sci.]
Spinning electric charge produces magnetism, so all fermions are magnets [Hesketh]
Photons are B and W° bosons, linked by the Higgs mechanism [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 2. Electrodynamics / b. Fields
A 'field' is just a region to which points can be assigned in space and time [Martin,BR]
The Higgs field, unlike others, has a nozero value in a state without particles [Martin,BR]
In the standard model all the fundamental force fields merge at extremely high energies [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 2. Electrodynamics / c. Electrons
Many physicists believe particles have further structure, if only we could see it [Martin,BR]
Electrons move fast, so are subject to special relativity [New Sci.]
Electrons may have smaller components, bound by a new force [Hesketh]
Electrons are fundamental and are not made of anything; they are properties without size [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 2. Electrodynamics / d. Quantum mechanics
The Schrödinger waves are just the maths of transforming energy values to positions [Farmelo]
Uncertainty allows very brief violations of energy conservation - even shorter with higher energies [Martin,BR]
The Exclusion Principle says no two fermions occupy the same state, with the same numbers [Martin,BR]
Physics was rewritten to explain stable electron orbits [Hesketh]
Virtual particles can't be measured, and can ignore the laws of physics [Hesketh]
Quantum mechanics is our only theory, and is very precise, and repeatedly confirmed [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 3. Chromodynamics / a. Chromodynamics
The strong force is repulsive at short distances, strong at medium, and fades at long [New Sci.]
Gluons, the particles carrying the strong force, interact because of their colour charge [New Sci.]
The strong force binds quarks tight, and the nucleus more weakly [New Sci.]
Colour charge is positive or negative, and also has red, green or blue direction [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 3. Chromodynamics / b. Quarks
Three different colours of quark (as in the proton) can cancel out to give no colour [New Sci.]
Classifying hadrons revealed two symmetry patterns, produced by three basic elements [New Sci.]
Quarks in threes can build hadrons with spin ½ or with spin 3/2 [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / b. Standard model
The standard model combines theories of strong interaction, and electromagnetic and weak interaction [Martin,BR]
The four fundamental forces (gravity, electromagnetism, weak and strong) are the effects of particles [New Sci.]
The weak force explains beta decay, and the change of type by quarks and leptons [New Sci.]
Three particles enable the weak force: W+ and W- are charged, and Z° is not [New Sci.]
The weak force particles are heavy, so the force has a short range [New Sci.]
Why do the charges of the very different proton and electron perfectly match up? [New Sci.]
The Standard Model cannot explain dark energy, survival of matter, gravity, or force strength [New Sci.]
The Standard Model omits gravity, because there are no particles involved [Hesketh]
In Supersymmetry the Standard Model simplifies at high energies [Hesketh]
Standard Model forces are one- two- and three-dimensional [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / c. Particle properties
Experiments show that fundamental particles of one type are identical [Farmelo]
The properties of a particle are determined by its quantum numbers and its mass [Martin,BR]
Eletrons don't literally 'spin', because they are point-like [Martin,BR]
Virtual particles surround any charged particle [Martin,BR]
Spin is a built-in ration of angular momentum [New Sci.]
Fermions, with spin ½, are antisocial, and cannot share quantum states [New Sci.]
Particles are spread out, with wave-like properties, and higher energy shortens the wavelength [New Sci.]
Spin is akin to rotation, and is easily measured in a magnetic field [New Sci.]
Quarks have red, green or blue colour charge (akin to electric charge) [New Sci.]
Quarks and leptons have a weak charge, for the weak force [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / d. Mass
The mass of protons and neutrinos is mostly binding energy, not the quarks [New Sci.]
Gravitional mass turns out to be the same as inertial mass [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / e. Protons
Top, bottom, charm and strange quarks quickly decay into up and down [New Sci.]
Neutrons are slightly heavier than protons, and decay into them by emitting an electron [New Sci.]
Quarks rush wildly around in protons, restrained by the gluons [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / f. Neutrinos
Neutrinos were proposed as the missing energy in neutron beta decay [New Sci.]
Only neutrinos spin anticlockwise [New Sci.]
Neutrinos only interact with the weak force, but decays produce them in huge numbers [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 4. Standard Model / g. Anti-matter
Standard antineutrinos have opposite spin and opposite lepton number [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 5. Unified Models / a. Electro-weak unity
The symmetry of unified electromagnetic and weak forces was broken by the Higgs field [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 5. Unified Models / b. String theory
String theory only has one free parameter (tension) - unlike the standard model with 19 [Martin,BR]
String theory is now part of 11-dimensional M-Theory, involving p-branes [New Sci.]
Supersymmetric string theory can be expressed using loop quantum gravity [New Sci.]
String theory offers a quantum theory of gravity, by describing the graviton [New Sci.]
String theory might be tested by colliding strings to make bigger 'stringballs' [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / B. Modern Physics / 5. Unified Models / c. Supersymmetry
Supersymmetry has extra heavy bosons and heavy fermions [New Sci.]
The evidence for supersymmetry keeps failing to appear [New Sci.]
Only supersymmetry offers to incorporate gravity into the scheme [New Sci.]
Supersymmetry says particles and superpartners were unities, but then split [New Sci.]
To combine the forces, they must all be the same strength at some point [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 1. Space / b. Space
Empty space contains a continual flux of brief virtual particles [Krauss]
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 1. Space / d. Substantival space
The Higgs field means even low energy space is not empty [New Sci.]
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 1. Space / e. Relational space
'Space' in physics just means location [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / C. Space-Time / 3. Space-Time
Space-time arises from the connection between measurements of space and of time [Farmelo]
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 8. Dark Matter
Dark matter must have mass, to produce gravity, and no electric charge, to not reflect light [New Sci.]
The universe is 68% dark energy, 27% dark matter, 5% regular matter [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / D. Cosmology / 9. Fine-Tuned Universe
If a cosmic theory relies a great deal on fine-tuning basic values, it is probably wrong [Hesketh]
27. Natural Reality / E. Chemistry / 2. Modern Elements
An 'element' is what cannot be decomposed by chemistry [Martin,BR]