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Ideas of Georg W.F.Hegel, by Text

[German, 1770 - 1831, Born in Stuttgart. University of Heidelberg 1816. Professor in Berlin, 1818 till his death.]

1796 Oldest System Prog. of German Idealism
p.130 Highest reason is aesthetic, and truth and good are subordinate to beauty
1807 Phenomenology of Spirit
p.23 Consciousness is shaped dialectically, by opposing forces and concepts [Aho]
p.34 Hegel made the last attempt to restore Christianity, which philosophy had destroyed [Feuerbach]
p.36 God is the essence of thought, abstracted from the thinker [Feuerbach]
p.142 I develop philosophical science from the simplest appearance of immediate consciousness [Hegel]
p.177 Hegel claims knowledge of self presupposes desire, and hence objects [Scruton]
p.177 For Hegel knowledge of self presupposes objects, and also a public and moral social world [Scruton]
Pref 01 p.1 Philosophy moves essentially in the element of universality
Pref 06 p.4 The Absolute is not supposed to be comprehended, but felt and intuited
Pref 16 p.9 In the Absolute everything is the same
Pref 20 p.11 The true is the whole
Pref 26 p.15 The in-itself must become for-itself, which requires self-consciousness
Pref 34 p.20 The movement of pure essences constitutes the nature of scientific method
Pref 48 p.28 Truth does not come from giving reasons for and against propositions
Pref 53 p.32 Science confronts the inner necessities of objects
Pref 54 p.33 Being is Thought
Pref 67 p.41 Without philosophy, science is barren and futile
Pref 69 p.43 Human nature only really exists in an achieved community of minds
1812 works
p.3 On the continent it is generally believed that metaphysics died with Hegel [Benardete,JA]
p.64 Hegel was the last philosopher of the Book [Derrida]
p.69 Hegel reputedly claimed to know a priori that there are five planets [Field,H]
p.72 Hegel said he was offering an encyclopaedic rationalisation of Christianity [Graham]
p.77 Hegel's Absolute Spirit is the union of human rational activity at a moment, and whatever that sustains [Eldridge]
p.83 For Hegel, things are incomplete, and contain external references in their own nature [Russell]
p.84 Rather than in three stages, Hegel presented his dialectic as 'negation of the negation' [Bowie]
p.100 Hegel doesn't storm the heavens like the giants, but works his way up by syllogisms [Kierkegaard]
p.105 When man wills the natural, it is no longer natural
p.150 Hegel produced modern optimism; he failed to grasp that consciousness never progresses [Cioran]
p.170 The dialectical opposition of being and nothing is resolved in passing to the concept of becoming [Scruton]
p.171 Hegel gives an ontological proof of the existence of everything [Scruton]
p.268 Hegel's entire philosophy is nothing but a monstrous amplification of the ontological proof [Schopenhauer]
p.417 Society isn’t founded on a contract, since contracts presuppose a society [Scruton]
3 p.71 Making sufficient reason an absolute devalues the principle of non-contradiction [Meillassoux]
1816 Science of Logic
p.90 The 'absolute idea' is when all the contradictions are exhausted [Bowie]
p.90 Every concept depends on the counter-concepts of what it is not [Bowie]
p.336 The Absolute is the primitive system of concepts which are actualised [Gardner]
1817 Logic (from Encyclopaedia)
p.168 In Hegel's logic it is concepts (rather than judgements or propositions) which are true or false [Scruton]
§03 Rem p.135 We don't think with concepts - we think the concepts
§20 p.139 The act of thinking is the bringing forth of universals
§20 Rem p.140 The sensible is distinguished from thought by being about singular things
§21 p.141 Active thought about objects produces the universal, which is what is true and essential of it
§213 p.276 The deeper sense of truth is a thing matching the idea of what it ought to be
§213 p.276 Superficial truth is knowing how something is, which is consciousness of bare correctness
§213 p.276 In the deeper sense of truth, to be untrue resembles being bad; badness is untrue to a thing's nature
§213 p.276 True philosophy aims at absolute unity, while our understanding sees only separation
§28 Add p.144 Older metaphysics naively assumed that thought grasped things in themselves
§28 Add p.145 Real cognition grasps a thing from within itself, and is not satisfied with mere predicates
§28 Add p.145 Old metaphysics tried to grasp eternal truths through causal events, which is impossible
§32 p.147 Older metaphysics became dogmatic, by assuming opposed assertions must be true and false
§33 Rem p.148 If truth is just non-contradiction, we must take care that our basic concepts aren't contradictory
§35 Add p.149 In abstraction, beyond finitude, freedom and necessity must exist together
§36 Add p.150 If God is the abstract of Supremely Real Essence, then God is a mere Beyond, and unknowable
§37 p.151 Empiricism made particular knowledge possible, and blocked wild claims
§38 Rem p.151 Empiricism contains the important idea that we should see knowledge for ourselves, and be part of it
§38 Rem p.151 Empiricism unknowingly contains and uses a metaphysic, which underlies its categories
§38 Rem p.151 Empiricism of the finite denies the supersensible, and can only think with formal abstraction
§39 Rem p.152 Humean scepticism, unlike ancient Greek scepticism, accepts the truth of experience as basic
§41 Add1 p.153 Free thinking has no presuppositions
§41 Add2 p.154 Sense perception is secondary and dependent, while thought is independent and primitive
§43-4 p.156 Categories create objective experience, but are too conditioned by things to actually grasp them
§48 p.159 The idea that contradiction is essential to rational understanding is a key modern idea
§48 Rem p.159 Tenderness for the world solves the antinomies; contradiction is in our reason, not in the essence of the world
§48 Rem p.160 Antinomies are not just in four objects, but in all objects, all representations, all objects and all ideas
§49 p.161 The ideal of reason is the unification of abstract identity (or 'concept') and being
§50 p.161 The Humean view stops us thinking about perception, and finding universals and necessities in it
§51 p.161 We establish unification of the Ideal by the ontological proof, deriving being from abstraction of thinking
§62 p.163 Thought about particulars is done entirely through categories
§62 Rem p.163 The older conception of God was emptied of human features, to make it worthy of the Infinite
§64 Rem p.165 The Cogito is at the very centre of the entire concern of modern philosophy
§65 p.166 Essence is the essential self-positing unity of immediacy and mediation
§81 p.171 Dialectic is the moving soul of scientific progression, the principle which binds science together
§81 Add1 p.171 Socratic dialectic is subjective, but Plato made it freely scientific and objective
p.172 p.35 Excluded middle is the maxim of definite understanding, but just produces contradictions
1821 Elements of the Philosophy of Right
p.208 You can't have a morality which is supplied by the individual, but is also genuinely universal [MacIntyre]
p.208 For Hegel, the moral life can only be led within a certain type of community [MacIntyre]
1835 Lectures on Aesthetics
p.43 The purpose of art is to reveal to Spirit its own nature [Davies,S]
p.77 For Hegel the importance of art concerns the culture, not the individual [Eldridge]
5 p.82 Nineteenth century aesthetics focused on art rather than nature (thanks to Hegel)
p.8 p.78 Art forms a bridge between the sensuous world and the world of pure thought
1840 Introduction to the Philosophy of History
p.122 Hegel inserted society and history between the God-world, man-nature, man-being binary pairs [Safranski]